Table 1

Comparison of hardcore and non-hardcore smokers in Missouri

Hardcore smokers (%)Non-hardcore smokers (%)p Value
Age (years)
 African American/black4.013.0<0.001
 Non-Hispanic white92.882.4
Marital status
 Never married12.313.2
Education level
 Less than high school20.313.8<0.001
 High school graduate or GED45.939.0
 Some college23.430.1
 College graduate10.417.2
Health insurance
Annual household income
 <$15 00020.114.3<0.001
 $15 000–$24 99920.319.8
 $25 000–$39 99922.013.8
 $40 000–$49 99916.719.7
 $50 000–$74 9999.917.0
 $75 000+10.915.4
Employment status
 Out of work/unable to work20.319.4
 Self-employed/home maker/student15.615.4
 Large rural7.26.4
 Small rural21.116.4
Smoking characteristics, environment, health beliefs and health status
Smoking initiation
 Age when first whole cigarette (mean (SD))14.6 (3.9)15.8 (4.4)0.006
 Initiation age (mean (SD))16.5 (3.9)18.5 (5.0)<0.001
Quitting self-efficacy
 Very likely28.838.2<0.001
 Somewhat likely11.943.5
 Somewhat unlikely9.311.4
 Very unlikely49.96.9
Advice from health professionals on smoking
 Seen doctor/nurse/other health professional*
 Doctor/nurse/other health professional asked if smoked* 92.892.30.676
 Doctor/nurse/other health professional advised to quit*
 Dentist asked whether smoked*
 Dentist advised to quit* 48.863.2<0.001
Cessation services
 Awareness of available cessation assistance (eg, quitlines, health clinics, etc)82.975.7<0.001
 Employer offered cessation programmes/help for employees*16.429.8<0.001
Perceived health status
 Very good21.130.4
Health limitations
 Limited in any way due to physical, mental or emotional problems31.727.40.009
Attitudes about second-hand smoke
Agree: ‘Breathing smoke from other people’s cigarettes is harmful to one's health.'44.879.5<0.001
Agree: ‘If a person has smoked a pack of cigarettes per day for more than 20 years there is not much health benefit to quitting.’34.317.8<0.001
 Lives with someone who smokes cigarettes63.954.5<0.001
 Smoking not allowed in the home12.036.5<0.001
 Smoking not allowed in the car4.418.9<0.001
 Protected from second-hand smoke at work among those who work indoors65.473.70.003
Exposed to second-hand smoke in the last week
 In own home55.239.9<0.001
 In a car71.662.3<0.001
 At work (those who work indoors)
Believes that second-hand smoke is a cause of:
 Heart disease in adults34.947.2<0.001
 Respiratory problems in children72.587.8<0.001
 Sudden infant death syndrome10.930.7<0.001
Believes that smoking cigarettes is a cause of:
 Heart attack57.569.8<0.001
 Low birth weight53.279.5<0.001
  • * Within past 12 months.

  • Denominator restricted to individuals who visited doctor/nurse/other health professional within past year.

  • Denominator restricted to individuals who visited dentist within past year.

  • GED, General Educational Development diploma.