Table 1

Comparison of hardcore and non-hardcore smokers in Missouri

Hardcore smokers (%)Non-hardcore smokers (%)p Value
Demographics
Age (years)
 26–4431.052.5<0.001
 45–6449.340.2
 65+19.77.3
Gender
 Male58.248.8<0.001
 Female41.851.2
Race
 African American/black4.013.0<0.001
 Hispanic0.61.8
 Non-Hispanic white92.882.4
 Other2.62.9
Marital status
 Married51.953.7<0.001
 Divorced18.417.3
 Widowed9.65.3
 Never married12.313.2
 Other7.910.6
Education level
 Less than high school20.313.8<0.001
 High school graduate or GED45.939.0
 Some college23.430.1
 College graduate10.417.2
Health insurance
 Yes71.477.10.009
 No28.622.9
Annual household income
 <$15 00020.114.3<0.001
 $15 000–$24 99920.319.8
 $25 000–$39 99922.013.8
 $40 000–$49 99916.719.7
 $50 000–$74 9999.917.0
 $75 000+10.915.4
Employment status
 Employed43.656.3<0.001
 Out of work/unable to work20.319.4
 Retired20.58.9
 Self-employed/home maker/student15.615.4
Rurality
 Urban62.270.7<0.001
 Large rural7.26.4
 Small rural21.116.4
 Isolated9.56.4
Smoking characteristics, environment, health beliefs and health status
Smoking initiation
 Age when first whole cigarette (mean (SD))14.6 (3.9)15.8 (4.4)0.006
 Initiation age (mean (SD))16.5 (3.9)18.5 (5.0)<0.001
Quitting self-efficacy
 Very likely28.838.2<0.001
 Somewhat likely11.943.5
 Somewhat unlikely9.311.4
 Very unlikely49.96.9
Advice from health professionals on smoking
 Seen doctor/nurse/other health professional*65.068.70.034
 Doctor/nurse/other health professional asked if smoked* 92.892.30.676
 Doctor/nurse/other health professional advised to quit* 68.073.10.013
 Dentist asked whether smoked* 47.053.30.046
 Dentist advised to quit* 48.863.2<0.001
Cessation services
 Awareness of available cessation assistance (eg, quitlines, health clinics, etc)82.975.7<0.001
 Employer offered cessation programmes/help for employees*16.429.8<0.001
Perceived health status
 Excellent15.09.3<0.001
 Very good21.130.4
 Good33.437.0
 Fair19.815.1
 Poor10.68.2
Health limitations
 Limited in any way due to physical, mental or emotional problems31.727.40.009
Attitudes about second-hand smoke
Agree: ‘Breathing smoke from other people’s cigarettes is harmful to one's health.'44.879.5<0.001
Agree: ‘If a person has smoked a pack of cigarettes per day for more than 20 years there is not much health benefit to quitting.’34.317.8<0.001
 Lives with someone who smokes cigarettes63.954.5<0.001
 Smoking not allowed in the home12.036.5<0.001
 Smoking not allowed in the car4.418.9<0.001
 Protected from second-hand smoke at work among those who work indoors65.473.70.003
Exposed to second-hand smoke in the last week
 In own home55.239.9<0.001
 In a car71.662.3<0.001
 At work (those who work indoors)23.219.10.104
Believes that second-hand smoke is a cause of:
 Heart disease in adults34.947.2<0.001
 Respiratory problems in children72.587.8<0.001
 Sudden infant death syndrome10.930.7<0.001
Believes that smoking cigarettes is a cause of:
 Heart attack57.569.8<0.001
 Stroke44.464.6<0.001
 Low birth weight53.279.5<0.001
 Impotence18.537.1<0.001
  • * Within past 12 months.

  • Denominator restricted to individuals who visited doctor/nurse/other health professional within past year.

  • Denominator restricted to individuals who visited dentist within past year.

  • GED, General Educational Development diploma.