Table 1

Characteristics of included studies

Author, year, countrynPopulationDesignOutcomes measured
Ashley and Cohen, 2003, Canada541607Adult: 18+ yearsCross-sectionalAttitudes towards tobacco industry (TI)
Austin et al, 2005, USA23119Youth: 15–25 yearsControlled before and after
  • Current smoking prevalence; intent to smoke; perceived peer prevalence

Bauer et al, 2000, USA1520 978–23 745Youth: 12–17 yearsRepeated cross-sectional (three waves)
  • Current smoking prevalence§; intent to smoke

Carver et al, 2003, USA62
  • 800, 790

Adult: 18+ with childrenHistorically controlledAttitudes towards TI
Cowell et al, 2009, USA3731 785Youth: 12–17 yearsRepeated cross-sectional (seven waves)Intent to smoke**
Danishevski et al, 2008, Russia581600Adult: 18+ yearsCross-sectionalAttitudes towards TI
  • Davis et al, 2007, USA50 Farrelly et al, 200935

35 074Youth: 12–17 yearsRepeated cross-sectional (eight waves)
  • Intent to smoke; perceived peer smoking prevalence

Davis et al, 2009, USA2716 327Youth: 12–17 yearsLongitudinal
  • Smoking initiation; intent to smoke

  • Dietz et al, 2008, USA45 Delva et al, 200944

2374Adult: 18+ yearsCross-sectionalIntent to quit smoking
Dietz et al, 2010, USA1614 400Youth: 12–17 yearsRepeated cross-sectional (eight waves)Current smoking prevalence
Dixon et al, 2001, Australia42
  • 323 prior to study, 266 post study

Adult/youth: 15–60 yearsControlled before and after
  • Intent to smoke††; attitudes towards TI

Dunn et al, 2004, USA32852Youth: 15–17 yearsCross-sectional
  • Intent to smoke*; empowerment

Dunn and Pirie, 2005, USA53940Youth: 12–25 yearsCross-sectionalEmpowerment
Durkin et al, 2005, Australia551995–3001Adult: 18+ yearsRepeated cross-sectional (three waves)Attitudes towards TI
Edwards et al, 2007, Australia433091Youth: 12–25 yearsHistorically controlledIntent to smoke††
  • Evans et al, 2002, USA70 Evans et al, 200571

2306Youth: 12–17 yearsRepeated cross-sectional (two waves)Structural equation modelling
Evans et al, 2004, USA7210 412Youth: 12–17 yearsRepeated cross-sectional (three waves)Structural equation modelling
Farrelly et al, 2002, USA283439–6233Youth: 12–17 yearsRepeated cross-sectional (two waves)Intent to smoke**
Farrelly et al, 2005, USA2243 922Youth: 12–17 yearsHistorically controlledCurrent smoking prevalence
Farrelly et al, 2009, USA288904Youth: 12–17 yearsLongitudinal
  • Smoking initiation; intent to smoke**

  • Hammond et al, 2006, Canada/US/UK/Australia8, Young et al, 200746

8222–9058Adult: 18+ years, smoker*Repeated cross-sectional (three waves)
  • Intent to quit; attitudes towards TI

Henriksen and Fortmann, 2002, USA66218Young adult: 18–25 yearsRandomised controlled trialAttitudes towards TI
Hersey et al, 2003, USA686875Youth: 12–25 yearsCross-sectionalStructural equation modelling
Hersey et al, 2005, USA1934 946Youth: 12–17 yearsRepeated cross-sectional (five waves)Current smoking prevalence
Hersey et al, 2005, USA6716 464Youth: 12–17 yearsRepeated cross-sectional (three waves)Structural equation modelling
Hudson et al, 2007, New Zealand6510Adult: 18 yearsQualitative interviewsAttitudes towards TI
Johnson et al, 2008, USA6028Youth: 12–14 yearsQualitative focus groupsAttitudes towards TI
Kim and Nam, 2005, USA6322Adult: 18 years*, smokerQualitative focus groupsAttitudes towards TI
King et al, 2007, USA61410Adult: 18+ years*Cross-sectionalAttitudes towards TI
Klesges et al, 2009, USA26
  • 36 013 prior to study, 20 672 post study

Adult: Air Force RecruitsLongitudinal
  • Current smoking prevalence§; smoking initiation

Leatherdale et al, 2006, Canada2114 767Youth: 14–18 yearsCross-sectionalCurrent smoking prevalence§
Ling et al, 2007, USA249455Young adult: 18–29 yearsCross-sectional
  • Current smoking prevalence; intent to quit; intent to smoke**

Ling et al, 2009, USA251731Young adult: 18–29 yearsCross-sectional
  • Current smoking prevalence ‡‡; intent to quit

  • Murphy-Hoefer et al, 2008, USA47 Murphy-Hoefer et al, 2010, USA48

1011Young adult: 18–24 yearsControlled experimentIntent to quit
Netemeyer et al, 2005, USA491207Adult: 18+ years, smokerCross-sectionalIntent to quit
Niederdeppe et al, 2004, USA177478Youth: 12–17 yearsRepeated cross-sectional (three waves)
  • Current smoking prevalence; intent to smoke**

Niederdeppe et al, 2008, USA315010Youth: 12–18 yearsRepeated cross-sectional (five waves)Intent to smoke
Pechmann et al, 2003, USA381667Youth: 15–18 yearsRandomised controlled trial
  • Intent to smoke*; resistance self-efficacy

Pechmann et al, 2006, USA391725Youth: 14–15 yearsRandomised controlled trial
  • Intent to smoke*; empowerment

Reinert et al, 2010, USA6453Adult:Cross-sectionalAttitudes towards TI
School nurses
Richardson et al, 2010, USA4119 701Young adult: 18–24 yearsRepeated cross-sectional (eight waves)
  • Intent to smoke**; intent to quit

  • Shadel et al, 2009, USA51 Shadel et al, 2010, USA52

110Youth: 11–17 yearsControlled comparisonResistance self-efficacy
Sly et al, 2000, USA591816Youth: 12–17 yearsCross-sectionalAttitudes towards TI
Sly et al, 2001, USA301820Youth: 12–17 yearsRepeated cross-sectional (two waves)Smoking initiation
Sly et al, 2001, USA18Approximately 1800Youth: 12–17 yearsRepeated cross-sectional (four waves)Current smoking prevalence§
Sly et al, 2002, USA291805Youth: 12–17 yearsRepeated cross-sectional (six waves)Smoking initiation
Sly et al, 2005, USA331079–1150Youth: 12–17 yearsRepeated cross-sectional (four waves)Intent to smoke**
Sutfin et al, 2008, USA40488Youth: 15–17 yearsRandomised controlled trialIntent to smoke*
Tangari et al, 2007, USA34
  • 1208 adult, 900 youth

Adult/youthCross-sectional
  • Intent to smoke*; intent to quit

Thrasher and Jackson, 2006, USA696670Youth: 12–17 yearsRepeated cross-sectional (two waves)Structural equation modelling
Thrasher et al, 2006, USA2010 035Youth: 12–17 yearsRepeated cross-sectional (two waves)
  • Current smoking prevalence; intent to smoke*

Wakefield et al, 1999, Australia56808Adult: 18+ yearsCross-sectionalAttitudes towards TI
Waller et al, 2004, Canada57
  • 10 434, youth, 1607 adult

Adult/youth: 12–18 yearsRepeated cross-sectional (three waves)Attitudes towards TI
Zucker et al, 2000, USA141247–1806Youth: 12–17 yearsRepeated cross-sectionalCurrent smoking prevalence
  • * Intent to smoke measured with three validated items on a five-point Likert scale: ‘in the future, you might smoke one puff or more of a cigarette’; ‘you might try out cigarette smoking for a while’; ‘if one of your best friends were to offer you a cigarette you would smoke it’.

  • Current smoking prevalence measured using 30 day referent.

  • Intent to smoke measured with one item on a four-point or seven-point scale: ‘if your best friend offered you a cigarette, would you smoke it?’.

  • § Current smoking prevalence measured on 3–5 classification continuum: never smoker, experimenter, ever smoker, current smoker, former smoker.

  • Intent to smoke measured with four items on a five-point scale: ‘do you think you will smoke a cigarette soon?’; ‘do you think you will smoke a cigarette anytime during the next year?’; ‘do you think you will be smoking cigarettes 5 years from now?’; ‘if one of your best friends offered you a cigarette would you smoke it?’.

  • ** Intent to smoke measured with one item on a four-point Likert scale: ‘you will smoke a cigarette in the next year’.

  • †† Intent to smoke measured with one item on a seven-point scale: ‘do you think you will be smoking cigarettes this time next year?’.

  • ‡‡ Current smoking prevalence measured using 100-cigarettes referent.