Table 1

Retail-level characteristics by retailer compliance with underage tobacco sales laws in mid-sized California cities

Compliant (n=854)Non-compliant (n=143)All retailers (n=997)
Mean young buyer real age19.39 (0.79)20.14 (0.99)19.49 (0.87)
Young buyer gender (%)
Type of outlet (%)
 Small markets85.814.211.5
 Convenience store84.615.446.3
 Smoke/tobacco shop71.928.15.7
 Drug/pharmacy store90.69.49.6
 Liquor store89.610.413.5
Clerk gender (%)
Brand of cigarettes purchased (%)
Mean clerk-estimated age35.43 (9.87)35.49 (9.75)35.45 (9.85)
Minimum age signs (%)
Mean of number of customers in line behind buyers0.66 (1.05)0.61 (1.11)0.65 (1.06)
Asked about age (%)
  • Note: Non-compliant means that a retailer sold cigarettes to a confederate buyer who was judged to look younger than 18 years.