Table 4

Bivariate and adjusted associations between continuous outcomes and recall of pictorial health warning labels (HWLs) and the media campaign

Independent variablesAttention towards HWLs, B(SE)Cognitive impact of HWLs, B(SE)General SHS dangers, B(SE)Child-specific SHS dangers, B(SE)Toxic SHS constituents, B(SE)
Bivariate associations
 No exposure (Ref.)00000
 Pictorial HWL only0.30* (0.14)0.42* (0.18)0.30*** (0.08)0.36*** (0.08)0.48*** (0.07)
 Campaign only0.25 (0.19)0.41* (0.20)0.15 (0.11)0.31** (0.110)0.26** (0.09)
 Pictorial HWL and campaign0.63*** (0.16)0.79*** (0.13)0.34*** (0.08)0.44*** (0.09)0.71*** (0.08)
Adjusted associations
 No exposure (Ref.)00000
 Pictorial HWL only0.28* (0.12)0.32* (0.15)0.31*** (0.08)0.36*** (0.08)0.44*** (0.07)
 Campaign only0.27 (0.17)0.28 (0.19)0.13 (0.11)0.29* (0.11)0.26** (0.09)
 Pictorial HWL and campaign0.58*** (0.12)0.63*** (0.14)0.33*** (0.08)0.41*** (0.09)0.69*** (0.08)
  • *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.

  • Coefficients adjust for age, sex, monthly income, education, civil status, smoking intensity, intention to quit and exposure to both pictorial HWLs and campaign.

  • SHS, secondhand smoke.