Table 4

Effectiveness of genetic testing for smoking-related diseases on smoking behaviour and proposed working mechanisms

StudyFollow-upDeterminants of smokingSmoking cessation (OR)
Risk perception, effect size (r)Motivation to quit, effect size (r)Genetic testing vs controlGene present vs controlGene absent vs controlGene present vs gene absent
Hishida et al (2010)2512 monthsr=0.240.72 (0.36; 1.41)0.75 (0.36; 1.56)0.60 (0.17; 2.06)1.26 (0.34; 4.62)
Ito et al (2006)266 monthsr=−0.05r=0.260.76 (0.49; 1.18)1.31 (0.84; 2.05)0.96 (0.46; 2.00)1.37 (0.63; 2.97)
Lerman et al (1997); also see Audrain et al (1997)29 302 monthsr=0.61r=0.200.58 (0.29; 1.19)NANANA
12 months1.80 (0.72; 4.50)NANANA
McBride et al (2002)276 months1.55 (0.89; 2.69)2.79 (1.15; 6.78)2.61 (1.18; 5.77)0.98 (0.47; 2.04)
12 months2.06 (1.20; 3.54)1.83 (0.91; 3.67)5.85 (2.78; 12.33)0.70 (0.38; 1.28)
Sanderson et al (2008)281 weekr=0.68r=0.4111.60 (0.64; 209.35)20.56 (1.08; 391.72)0.55 (0.12; 2.43)3.59 (0.78; 16.45)
2 monthsr=0.58r=−0.071.30 (0.37; 4.58)1.40 (0.35; 5.57)6.32 (0.31; 130.63)2.56 (0.62; 10.55)
Heterogeneity, I2 (p)60% (0.02)44% (0.11)74% (< 0 01)21% (0.28)
Pooled estimate, OR (95% CI)1.16 (0.77 to 1.76)1.53 (0.96 to 2.43)1.66 (0.70 to 3.91)1.15 (0.75 to 1.76)
Test for pooled estimate, Z (p)0.38 (0.70)1.79 (0.07)1.15 (0.25)0.65 (0.51)
  • The bold text and values represent the results of the overall pooled effects.