Table 2

Predictors of relapse at 1-year follow-up, including demographics, exposure, known predictors and reactions to warning labels (WL) while quit

Simple associationsModel 3 (N=1825, 57.5% quit)
NOR (95% CI)NOR (95% CI)
Frequency of noticing WLs in last month
 Never848Reference811Reference
 Rarely2911.17 (0.87 to 1.57)2771.04 (0.76 to 1.43)
 Sometimes2111.38 (0.98 to 1.95)1981.20 (0.82 to 1.74)
 Often2301.07 (0.77 to 1.49)2201.06 (0.75 to 1.51)
 Very often3371.36 (1.01 to 1.84)*3191.29 (0.92 to 1.80)
WLs make it more likely you will remain quit
 Not at all896Reference851Reference
 A little3041.05 (0.79 to 1.41)2910.92 (0.68 to 1.25)
 Somewhat3101.05 (0.79 to 1.39)2950.98 (0.72 to 1.33)
 A lot4010.71 (0.54 to 0.93)*3880.69 (0.51 to 0.93)*
Age19360.995 (0.988 to 1.002)18250.99 (0.98 to 1.00)*
Sex
 Female1079Reference1018Reference
 Male8570.83 (0.68 to 1.02)8070.83 (0.67 to 1.03)
Socioeconomic status
 Low370Reference335Reference
 Moderate10240.98 (0.75 to 1.29)9690.99 (0.74 to 1.33)
 High5420.92 (0.68 to 1.25)5210.97 (0.70 to 1.36)
Country of residence
 USA367Reference350Reference
 Canada4781.09 (0.80 to 1.48)4621.21 (0.87 to 1.68)
 UK5121.02 (0.75 to 1.37)4641.05 (0.75 to 1.47)
 Australia5791.06 (0.79 to 1.43)5491.23 (0.89 to 1.71)
Natural logarithm of baseline quit length19360.50 (0.46 to 0.55)***18250.59 (0.54 to 0.65)***
Number among five closest friends who smoke19321.11 (1.04 to 1.18)**18251.11 (1.04 to 1.19)**
Smoking in the home
 Never allowed1055Reference1007Reference
 Allowed8691.27 (1.03 to 1.56)*8181.17 (0.94 to 1.46)
Number of smokers in the home
 Only the respondent1362Reference1281Reference
 Other smokers5741.05 (0.84 to 1.30)5441.02 (0.80 to 1.29)
Frequency of noticing pro-smoking media
 Low1617Reference1523Reference
 High3181.11 (0.84 to 1.45)3021.21 (0.90 to 1.62)
Residual evaluation of smoking 18881.06 (1.02 to 1.10)**18251.01 (0.97 to 1.06)
Frequency of urges to smoke
 Never447Reference410Reference
 Less than daily7121.54 (1.17 to 2.04)**6781.40 (1.04 to 1.89)*
 Daily3382.33 (1.68 to 3.23)***3232.01 (1.42 to 2.86)***
 Several times a day to hourly4372.71 (1.96 to 3.75)***4142.22 (1.56 to 3.16)***
Self-efficacy for staying quit
 None at all/ slight169Reference160Reference
 Moderate4200.68 (0.45 to 1.02)4040.67 (0.44 to 1.02)
 Very high6830.56 (0.38 to 0.83)**6410.59 (0.39 to 0.89)*
 Extremely high6540.33 (0.22 to 0.49)**6200.37 (0.25 to 0.57)***
Constant8.01***
  • Simple associations were adjusted only for demographics (age, sex, socioeconomic status, country and the natural logarithm of baseline quit length). Models 3 was adjusted for demographics and all included predictor variables.

  • *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.

  • Calculated as a composite of noticing any pro-smoking material, noticing on the radio, billboards and shops.

  • A composite of smoking is an important part of life, smoking helps to reduce stress and smoking is too enjoyable to give up for good.