Table 1

Frequency of endorsement of the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) items by lifetime use

The Hooked on Nicotine ChecklistLifetime useDippers*Smokers
NEndorsement (%)p ValueNEndorsement (%)p Value
Have you ever tried to quit, but couldn't?<1003400.000606.70.002
Do you smoke or use dip now because it is really hard to quit?<1003400.000618.20.004
Have you ever felt like you were addicted to tobacco?<1003417.60.0066116.40.000
Have you ever had strong cravings to smoke or use dip?<1003438.20.0006137.70.000
Have you ever felt like you really needed a cigarette or a dip?<1003438.20.0006142.60.000
Have you ever found it hard to keep from smoking or using dip in places where you are not supposed to, like school?<1003420.60.001619.80.000
When you tried to stop smoking or using dip… (or, when you haven't used tobacco for a while…)
Did you find it hard to concentrate because you couldn't smoke or dip?<100345.90.0045812.10.000
Did you feel more irritable because you couldn't smoke or dip?<100348.80.0005820.70.000
Did you feel a strong need or urge to smoke or dip?<1003417.60.0005825.90.000
Did you feel nervous, restless or anxious because you couldn't smoke or dip?<100345.90.0005812.10.000
Loss of autonomy (any of the above)<1003455.90.0006157.40.000
  • * None of the comparisons between dippers and smokers within each level of lifetime use were significant.

  • p Value for χ2 test for the vertical comparison of lifetime use within each population of dippers and smokers considered separately; p<0.005 is significant when corrected for multiple comparisons.