Table 2

Frequency of endorsement of the Autonomy Over Smoking Scale (AUTOS) items by lifetime use

The Autonomy Over Smoking ScaleLifetime useDippersSmokers
NEndorsement (%)p Value*NEndorsement (%)p Value*
Withdrawal subscale
When I go too long without a cigarette or a dip I feel nervous or anxious<1003917.90.0007812.80.000
≥1004658.75860.3
When I go too long without a cigarette or a dip I lose my temper more easily<1003910.30.000789.00.000
≥1004663.05863.8
When I go too long without a cigarette or a dip I get strong urges to smoke or dip that are hard to get rid of<1003925.60.0007812.80.000
≥1004680.45871.9
When I go too long without a cigarette or a dip I get impatient<1003923.10.0007819.20.000
≥1004680.45870.7
Psychological reliance subscale
I would go crazy if I couldn't smoke or use dip<100397.70.0007815.40.000
≥1004658.75855.2
I rely on smoking or dipping to deal with stress<1003935.90.0007846.20.000
≥1004682.65877.6
I rely on smoking or dipping to take my mind off being bored<1003946.20.0007839.70.006
≥1004684.85863.8
I rely on smoking or dip to focus my attention<1003910.30.0007810.30.000
≥1004654.35841.4
Cue-induced desire to smoke
After eating I want a cigarette or a dip<1003910.30.0007810.30.000
≥1004665.25865.5
When I smell cigarette smoke I want a cigarette<100397.70.0017856.4NS
≥1004537.85872.4
When I see other people smoking or using dip I want a cigarette or a dip<1003969.20.0037867.90.000
≥1004693.55893.1
When I feel stressed I want a cigarette or a dip<1003943.60.0007857.70.000
≥1004697.85889.7
  • * p Value for χ2 test for the vertical comparison of lifetime use for dippers and smokers considered separately; p<0.007 is significant when corrected for multiple comparisons.

  • This was the only item for which dippers and smokers differed significantly from one another (p<0.001 for both levels of lifetime use).