Table 2

Estimates of 24-hour and Annual PM2.5 exposures (in μg/m3) attributed to occupational outdoor tobacco smoke (OTS) under lower, moderate, and higher exposures

Lower exposureModerate exposureHigher exposure
Wind condition0.1 m/s0.1 m/s0.1 m/s
Length of shift worked outdoors4 h8 h4 h8 h4 h8 h
Number of lit cigarettes present at all times†0.4
lit cigarettes
0.4
lit cigarettes
0.7
lit cigarettes
0.7
lit cigarettes
1.0
lit cigarette
1.0
lit cigarette
Cigarette emission factor (CEF) (constant)‡1.4 mg/min1.4 mg/min1.4 mg/min1.4 mg/min1.4 mg/min1.4 mg/min
Total cigarette emissions (# lit cigarettes* CEF)0.56 mg/cigarette0.56 mg/cigarette0.98 mg/cigarette0.98 mg/cigarette1.4 mg/cigarette1.4 mg/cigarette
Average air pollution concentration across all distances and angles§42.8 μg/m3 42.8 μg/m3 42.8 μg/m3 42.8 μg/m3 42.8 μg/m3 42.8 μg/m3
Average exposure for 8-hr Shift*24.0 μg/m3 24.0 μg/m3 41.9 μg/m3 41.9 μg/m3 59.9 μg/m3 59.9 μg/m3
Assumed ambient air concentration (constant)¶6.5 μg/m3 6.5 μg/m3 6.5 μg/m3 6.5 μg/m3 6.5 μg/m3 6.5 μg/m3
Excess exposure above ambient air concentration*17.5 μg/m3 17.5 μg/m3 35.4 μg/m3 35.4 μg/m3 53.4 μg/m3 53.4 μg/m3
24-h excess PM2.5 Exposure from occupational OTS*2.9 μg/m3 5.8 μg/m3 5.9 μg/m3 11.8 μg/m3 8.9 μg/m3 17.8 μg/m3
Annual excess PM2.5 exposure from occupational OTS*2.0 μg/m3 4.0 μg/m3 4.0 μg/m3 8.1 μg/m3 6.1 μg/m3 12.2 μg/m3
  • *See appendix B, uploaded as ‘Web Only’ material, for an explanation of all calculations.

  • †From Cameron et al 29: active smoking was present 38.4% of the total observation time; From Stafford et al 30, active smoking was present 71.2% of the total observation time. The higher exposure category is an estimate of when one cigarette is present at all times over the entire 8 h shift.

  • ‡Klepeis et al 57 first reported the average fine particulate emission rate for cigarettes of 1.4 mg/min.

  • §Klepeis et al 51—this figure (42.8 μg/m3) was calculated from table 3 using light wind (0.1m/s) speeds

  • ¶Ambient levels averaged 6.5 μg/m3 across observational studies, which were usually measured at off-site locations where no smoking was observed to occur. Brennan: 5 μg/m3, Cameron: 8 μg/m3, Perry: 6 μg/m3, Stafford: 4 μg/m3, Wilson et al 32: 14 μg/m3, and Wilson et al 6: 2 μg/m3.

  • PM, particulate matter.