Table 1

Observed cigarette butt discarding behaviour by a single observer on a continuous circuit of downtown streets in central Wellington, New Zealand during October and November 2011

Variables consideredDid not litter (%)Littered (%)95% CIRR95% CI of RRp Value
All (n=219)23.376.770.8 to 82.0
Smoker demographics (estimated)
 Aged ≥50 years (n=39)17.982.167.0 to to 1.290.398
 Aged <50 years (n=180)24.475.668.8 to 81.3Reference
 Male (n=159)23.376.769.6 to to 1.180.981
 Female (n=60)23.376.764.5 to 85.7Reference
Smoking as part of a group
 Single smoker (n=132)22.777.369.4 to to 1.290.871
 Two people (n=62)24.275.863.8 to to 1.301.000
 Three or more (n=25) to 88.8Reference
How butt was extinguished
 Not extinguished (n=161)5.694.489.6 to 97.220.775.36 to 80.48<0.001
 Hand (n=44) to 16.0Reference
 Foot (n=14)0.0100.0
Presence of macro litter*
 Yes (n=15)26.773.347.6 to 89.50.980.71 to 1.350.883
 No (n=162)25.374.767.5 to 80.8Reference
Type of cigarette*
 Roll your own (n=28)3.696.480.8 to to 1.230.164
 Manufactured (n=108) to 92.2Reference
Time of discarding event
 Evening (n=106)14.285.877.8 to to 1.460.002
 Lunchtime (n=113)31.968.159.1 to 76.0Reference
Day of discarding event
 Saturday (n=99)17.282.874.1 to to 1.340.053
 Friday (n=120)28.371.763.0 to 79.0Reference
 Courtenay Place (n=109)19.380.772.3 to to 1.290.166
 Manners Street (n=110)27.372.763.7 to 80.2Reference
  • * Indicates incomplete data collection as this variable was only added into the data collection process after an initial period of data collection.

  • This could not be ascertained for butts discarded down drains and for some of the butts placed in rubbish bins.