Table 1

Nicotine reported in refill solutions, cartridges, aerosols and environmental emission of e-cigarette products

LiteratureMatrixUnitsNicotine levelDeviation from label*
Goniewicz et al4Refill solutionmg0±0.0 to 25±1.1–75 to 28%
Cartridgemg0±0.0 to 19±0.5–89 to 25%
Aerosolmg/150 puffs0.3±0.2 to 8.7±1.0N.A.
Etter et al13Refill solutionmg/mLN.D. to 29.0–15 to 21%†
Kirschner et al16Refill solutionmg/mL14.8±0.2 to 87.2±2.7–50 to 40%†
Cameron et al15Refill solutionmg/mL8.5±0.16 to 22.2±0.62–66 to 42%†
Pellegrino et al6Cartridge% W/W<0.001 to 0.25N.A.
Aerosolmg/m3<0.01 to 6.21N.A.
McAuley et al11Indoor airng/L538 to 8770N.A.
Cheah et al17Cartridgemg/cartridge0.00 to 15.3–89 to 105%†
Trehy et al7Refill solutionsmg/mL0 to 25.6–100 to 100%†
Cartridgemg/cartridge0 to 21.8–100 to 100%†
Aerosolμg/100 mL puff0 to 43.2N.A.
Cobb et al8Cartridgemg/cartridge3.23±0.5 to 4.07±0.54–80 to –77%†
Aerosolμg/35 mL puff0.3 for puffs 11 to 50
to 1.0 for puffs 1 to 10
Westenberger9Cartridgemg/cartridge0.00 to 6.76N.A.
Aerosolμg/100 mL puff0.35 to 43.2N.A.
Westenberger10Refill solutionμg/mLN.D. to 25.6N.A.
  • *Deviation from label=(measured value – labelled value) * 100/labelled value.

  • †Calculation performed by this analysis based on reported data in each study.

  • N.A., not available; N.D., not detected.