Table 2

Servers’ and patrons’ cancer risk due to exposure to nine SHS-VOCs in Minnesota restaurants and bars

ServersPatrons, smoking venues/sectionsPatrons, non-smoking sections
Carcinogenicity effectURE/UR* (10−6)EF† (µg/cigarette)Level‡ (µg/m3)LER§ (10−6)Level‡ (µg/m3)LER§ (10−6)Level‡ (µg/m3)LER§ (10−6)
AcetaldehydeNasal cancer in rats2.2022922.
AcrylonitrileLung cancer in humans68.01700.1610.
BenzeneLeukaemia in humans7.804310.403.
1,3-ButadieneLymphohaematopoietic cancer in humans30.02790.
EthylbenzeneKidney cancer in rats2.501310.
FormaldehydeNasal cancer in humans13.011011.0113.
NaphthaleneNasal cancer in rats34.0450.
N-NitrosodimethylamineLiver cancer in rats140000.570.000527.30.000050.70.000010.2
N-NitrosopyrrolidineLiver cancer in rats6000.100.000100.060.000010.0050.0000020.001
Total risk of all cancers48.34.81.1
Total risk of non-lung cancers37.73.80.8
  • *URE/UR: unit risk estimate reported by the US EPA or unit risk reported by the California EPA.

  • †Average of EFs reported in the literature (see table A2 in online appendices).

  • ‡Level: daily average exposure concentration during a lifetime of 70 years, adjusted by the factor in equation 2.

  • §LER, lifetime attributable risk of cancers.

  • Only nine SHS-VOCs with EF (in µg/cigarette, available from the literature) and URE or UR available from the US EPA or the California EPA website are included in this table. Compounds for which either EF or URE/UR were unavailable are not included even though they are known carcinogens.

  • EF, emission factor; EPA, Environmental Protection Agency; LER, lifetime excess risk; PM2.5, fine particulate matter; SHS-VOC, volatile organic compounds from SHS; SHS, secondhand smoke; UR, unit risk; URE, unit risk estimate.