Table 3

Logistic regression predicting current menthol smoking from psychological distress and covariates for a nationally representative sample of Americans participating in the 2008 and 2009 National Survey on Drug Use and Health

Respondent characteristicsOR (95% CI)p Value*
Psychological distress (K6)†
 None or mild1.00 (reference group)
 Moderate1.03 (0.92 to 1.15)0.58
 Severe1.23 (1.04 to 1.46)0.02
Gender
 Male1.00 (reference group)
 Female1.59 (1.42 to 1.77)<0.0001
Age (years)
 35 or older1.00 (reference group)
 18–251.62 (1.40 to 1.86)<0.0001
 26–341.07 (0.93 to 1.23)0.37
Race/ethnicity
 Caucasian‡1.00 (reference group)
 African–American‡18.60 (14.63 to 23.64)<0.0001
 Hispanic1.76 (1.51 to 2.06)<0.0001
 Asian–American‡1.44 (1.01 to 2.05)0.04
 Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander‡16.70 (7.42 to 37.56)<0.0001
 Native American/Alaska Native‡1.17 (0.76 to 1.80)0.48
 Multiracial‡2.00 (1.40 to 2.86)0.0002
Education
 College graduate1.00 (reference group)
 <High school1.39 (1.12 to 1.73)0.003
 High school/GED1.48 (1.21 to 1.81)0.0001
 Some college1.46 (1.19 to 1.79)0.0003
Income
 US$75 000 or more1.00 (reference group)
 <US$20 0000.76 (0.65 to 0.89)0.0009
 US$20 000–US$49 9990.84 (0.72 to 0.98)0.02
 US$50 000–US$74 9990.87 (0.73 to 1.03)0.11
Marital status
 Married1.00 (reference group)
 Never married1.19 (1.03 to 1.37)0.02
 Divorced, separated or widowed1.03 (0.87 to 1.21)0.74
Health insurance§
 No1.00 (reference group)
 Yes0.91 (0.81 to 1.02)0.11
Time to first cigarette
 After 30 min1.00 (reference group)
 Within 30 min1.30 (1.15 to 1.47)<0.0001
Cigarettes per day0.99 (0.99 to 1.00)0.03
  • * Significance of Wald χ2 test.

  • Psychological distress categories were derived from published cut-points41 using the Kessler-6 (K6) measure of psychological distress.35

  • Respondents were not Hispanic.

  • § Includes Medicare, private or military insurance (ie, TRICARE, CHAMPUS, CHAMPVA or VA coverage).

  • GED, graduate equivalency degree.