Table 1

Acute cardiovascular effects of waterpipe smoking: heart rate and blood pressure

StudyPopulationSmoking abstinenceSmoking session time and settingTobacco type and amountHR change bpmSBP change mm HgDBP change mm Hg
Shafogoj 2002818 previously healthy, normotensive men, avg. age 27 years, exclusive WP smokers84 h45 min in a well-ventilated laboratory20 g moassal+16+6.7+4.4
Shaikh 20089202 men, mean age 33.2 years, cigarette smokers excluded20 min*30–45 min, in a café environnementunspecified+6.3+15.7+2.0
Hakim 20111030 men and 15 women, mean age 32.3 (±23.4) years. Included 8 cigarette smokers24 h30 min in an outdoor environment10 g moassal+15.2+12.5+8.2
Kadhum 20141149 men and 12 women, free of cardiorespiratory disease, ages 18–25 years, cigarette or other tobacco users excludedYes, unspecified duration45–90 min in 6 WP cafesunspecified+14+15+10
Al-Kubati 20061220 normotensive men, avg. age 27 (±6) years12 h†45 min in a laboratory5 g moassalNE+13+14
Hawari 20131324 healthy men, average age 20.4 years48 h45 min at a caféunspecified+2.4 (NS)+10.3NS
Cobb 20121416 men and 16 women, healthy, age 18–50 years, regular cigarette users (>5 per day) excluded12 h*45 min in a laboratory10 g flavoured tobacco+4.1+5 (NS)+6.3
Shishani 20141522 adults, avg. age 24 (±3) years, exclusive WP smokers24 h45–60 in an outdoor laboratoryunspecified+8NSNS
Bentur 20141633 men and 14 women, healthy, average age 24.9 (±6.2) years24 h30 min in an indoor environment10 g moassal+15.5+8+4
Eissenberg 2009 1721 men, 10 women, healthy, avg. age 21.4 (±2.3) years, both WP and cigarette smokers12 h45 min in a laboratory environment15 g flavoured tobacco+6.3NENE
Blank 20111829 men, 8 women, healthy, avg. age 20 yearsovernight45 min in a ventilated laboratory10 g flavoured tobacco+8.6+1.7 (NS)NS
Al-Osaimi 201219220 WP smokersunspecified30 minunspecified+15NENE
Alomari 20142034 men, 19 women, avg age 22.7 (±4.8) years, range 18–35 yearsunspecified30 min in a well-ventilated, air-conditioned room10 g flavoured tobacco+5.2+1.7 (NS)+2.4
Layoun 20142187 men, 45 women, avg age 33.4 (±13.29) years, exclusive WP smokersunspecified45 min at restaurants in Beirut and Mt Lebanon20 g moassal tobacco+7.09‡+0.7‡+2.6‡
  • *Also abstained from caffeine.

  • †Also abstained from caffeine and alcohol.

  • ‡Statistical significance unspecified.DBP, diastolic blood pressure; HR, heart rate; NE, not evaluated; NS, not statistically significant; SBP, systolic blood pressure.