Table 2

Acute respiratory effects of water pipe smoking: change in respiratory rate and pulmonary function parameters

StudyPopulationSmoking session durationTobacco type and amountIncluded only healthy participants?RR bpmDifference in FEV1% predicted*Difference in FVC % predicted*Difference in FEV1/FVC %*Difference in PEFR % predicted*Difference in FEF25-75% predicted*
Shaikh 20089202 men, 17+ years45 minUnspecifiedNo+2NENENENENE
Hakim 20111030 men, 15 women, 18+ years, mean age 32.35 (±23.36) years, range 18.3–65.1 years30 min10 g double-apple flavoured moassalYes+2.3−1 (NS)0−1 (NS)−8−5
Hawari 20131324 men, 18–26 years45 minUnspecifiedYes+2−0.08 L/sec (NS)−0.05 L (NS)NENE−0.22 L/sec
Bentur 20141639 men, 23 women, 47 active smokers,18+ years, mean age 24.9 (±6.2) years30 min10 g double-apple flavoured moassalYes+3.5+0.1 (NS)−0.7 (NS)+1.0 (NS)−3.6−0.1 (NS)
Layoun 20142187 men, 45 women, avg age 33.4 (±13.29) years, exclusive WP smokers45 min20 g moassalNoNE−1.21†+1.69†−2.28†NENE
  • *All pulmonary function values are changes (WP value after—WP value before). The units are % predicted, except FEV1/FVC, which is a % ratio, or otherwise specified.

  • †Statistical significance unspecified.

  • % pred, per cent predicted; FEF25-75, forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% (middle half) of the FVC; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FEV1/FVC, ratio of FEV1/FVC; FVC, forced vital capacity; NE, not evaluated; NS, not statistically significant; PEFR, peak expiratory flow rate; RR, respiratory rate; unsp, unspecified.