Table 3

Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test statistics for motivation to quit smoking by message framing (gain or loss), cigarette pack branding (plain or branded), and their interaction

 ANCOVA results
Average across warningsLung diseaseCancerMortalityStroke/heart attack
FPartial
η2
FPartial
η2
FPartial
η2
FPartial
η2
FPartial
η2
Main effects
 Branding0.290.00040.370.00050.050.00010.650.00090.180.0003
 Message framing1.150.0022.180.00311.610.0021.930.0030.130.0002
Interaction effects
 Branding×message framing4.91*0.0075.11*0.0076.58*0.0095.67*0.0081.480.002
  • Covariates included in the ANCOVA were baseline motivation to quit, cigarettes smoked/day, preferred brand and demographics (race/ethnicity, income, employment and marital status); *p<0.05.