Table 4

Studies on associations of waterpipe smoking (WPS) and cancer

StudyCancer typePopulationStudy typeControlled for cigarette smoking?Adjusted for other confounders?OR (95% CI)Comments
Wu 201326All cancer death20 033 Bangladeshi individualsProspective community-basedNoYesAdjusted=2.5 (1.08 to 5.82)
Auon 201391Lung150 Lebanese individualsCase–controlYesYes6.0 (1.78 to 20.26)Non-significant OR after adjustment for confounders
Koul 201192Lung751 Indian individualsCase–controlNoNo5.8 (3.9 to 8.6)
Gupta 200193Lung265 Indian individualsCase-controlYesYesAdjusted=4.44 (1.2 to 16.44)OR for Male heavy smokers older than 45 years
Lubin 199094Lung148 Chinese menCase–controlNoNo*Increased risk with cumulative exposure
Lubin 199295Lung1438 Chinese menCase–controlYesYesAdjusted=1.8 (0.8 to 4.2)Did not control for Chinese long-stem pipe smoking
Hazelton 200196Lung12 011 Chinese menCase–controlYesYes*Did not control for Chinese long-stem pipe smoking
Dar 201298Oesophageal2365 Indian individualsCase–controlYesYesAdjusted=1.85 (1.41 to 2.44)Higher risk with greater intensity, duration and cumulative WPS
Malik 201099Oesophageal330 Indian individualsCase–controlNoYesAdjusted=21.4 (11.6 to 39.5)
Nasrollahzadeh 2008100Oesophageal871 Iranian individualsCase–controlYesYesAdjusted=1.66 (0.65 to 4.22)OR for >32 WP-years smoking
Sadjadi 2014101Gastric928 Iranian individualsProspective cohortYesYesAdjusted=3.4 (1.7 to 7.1)
Karajibani 2014102Gastric92 Iranian individualsCase–controlStatistically significant association was observed
Shakeri 2013103Gastric922 Iranian individualsCase–controlYesYesAdjusted=1.1 (0.3 to 3.3)Also non-significant for cumulative WP use. Included a small percentage of WP smokers
Gunaid 1995104Gastric and Oesophageal3064 Yemeni IndividualsCross-sectionalUnclearNoNot calculated (χ2=2.646, P<0.05)Number of gastric cancer cases was too small to draw significant conclusions. Most WP smokers were also Qat chewers, and an individual effect could not be discerned.
Zheng 2012105Bladder1134 Egyptian menCase–controlYesYesAdjusted=1.1 (0.7 to 1.9) for urothelial cancer, Adjusted=0.5 (0.2 to 1.0) for squamous cancerORs for smoking >153 Hagar-years. ORs also insignificant for lesser exposures
Bedwani 1997106Bladder308 Egyptian menCase–controlYesYesAdjusted=0.8 (0.2 to 4.0)
Hosseini 2010107Prostate274 Iranian menCase–controlYesYesOR=7.0 (0.9 to 56.9)Adjusted OR for WP was also non-significant (but not reported)
Lo 2007108Pancreatic388 Egyptian individualsCase–controlNoYesAdjusted=1.6 (0.9 2.8)WP smoking was also not exclusive of other non-cigarette forms of smoking
Feng 2009109Nasopharyngeal1251 North African individualsCase–controlNoYesAdjusted=0.49 (0.20 to 1.43)Had small numbers of WP smokers
  • *A single OR was not reported, but there was an increased risk based on mathematical modelling, which is beyond the scope of this paper.

  • †Only an abstract was available, which did not mention these variables.