Table 4

Sexual orientation disparities in smoking-related outcomes among high, medium, and low categories of state-level tobacco environments*: National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, 2004–2005

OutcomeHigh smoking permissivenessMedium smoking permissivenessLow smoking permissiveness
OR (95% CI)†OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Ever smoked1.87 (1.27 to 2.76)1.65 (1.14 to 2.39)1.34 (0.95 to 1.91)
Current smoking‡1.91 (1.27 to 2.85)1.99 (1.38 to 2.86)1.49 (1.00 to 2.22)
Current nicotine dependence among current smokers1.96 (1.03 to 3.75)1.75 (0.94 to 3.24)1.27 (0.71 to 2.29)
Amount of smoking (in half-packs) among smokers§0.53 (0.29 to 0.96)1.26 (0.63 to 2.52)0.38 (0.20 to 0.72)
  • *The states were broken up into a 3-level variable indicating the level of permissiveness of the state-level tobacco environment, based on tertiles of the factor score. The factor scores are based on the following state-level variables: total cigarette tax per pack, total state tobacco control programme funding, tobacco control funding per capita, tobacco settlement revenue, tobacco tax revenue, other state tobacco control funding, tax as a percentage of retail price (including generics), number of smoke-free air laws, number of smoke-free air preemption, % current smokers based on BRFSS, % past month cigarette use based on NHSDUH, % past month tobacco use based on NHSDUH, % believe that smoking 1+ packs per day poses great risk to harm overall based on NHSDUH. Monetary values were adjusted for inflation.

  • †OR and 95% CI comparing odds of smoking-related outcomes between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) and heterosexual individuals, adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity/race, income, education, urbanicity and state policies that included sexual orientation as a protected class status in hate crime statutes and in employment nondiscrimination acts in 2005.

  • Current Smoking defined as 1+ cigarettes within the last year.

  • §Half-Packs is an ordinal variable of number of half packs typically smoked on days when respondent smoked, among those who smoked every day or nearly every day (range 0–6 half packs, corresponding to <10 to 60 cigarettes per day).

  • BRFSS, Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System; NHSDUH; National Household Survey on Drug Use and Health.