Table 3

Fear-related reactions induced by graphic versus text warning labels for non-smokers (n=195) and smokers (n=113)

Graphic labelText labelLabel effectNon-smokersSmokersSmoker status effect
LabelImage themesM (SD)M (SD)Fηp2M (SD)M (SD)Fηp2
Cigarettes are Addictive
Hole in ThroatD4.50 (2.18)2.79 (1.82)98.56***0.424.15 (1.91)2.76 (1.85)23.81***0.15
 Cigarette InjectionM, A3.54 (2.14)2.79 (1.82)20.85***0.133.72 (1.98)2.25 (1.59)26.24***0.16
 Red PuppetM, A3.03 (1.69)2.79 (1.75)3.160.023.30 (1.74)2.29 (1.48)16.17***0.11
 Woman in RainU2.74 (1.69)2.79 (1.75)0.170.003.11 (1.75)2.23 (1.53)11.75***0.08
Tobacco Smoke Can Harm Your Children
Smoke Approaching BabyC4.49 (2.12)3.79 (2.16)20.35***0.134.65 (1.95)3.28 (1.95)15.72***0.10
 Smoke at BabyC, A, U4.35 (2.14)3.79 (2.16)15.25***0.104.53 (2.02)3.31 (2.02)11.77***0.08
 Girl with Oxygen MaskC, S, E4.33 (2.14)3.79 (2.16)14.22***0.094.50 (2.03)3.32 (2.03)12.24***0.08
 Smoke at ToddlerC4.34 (2.00)3.63 (2.00)30.57***0.184.38 (2.05)3.36 (2.05)10.88***0.07
 Girl CryingC, S4.17 (2.18)3.63 (2.00)12.89***0.074.33 (2.00)3.27 (2.00)11.95***0.08
 Child LetteringA3.55 (2.07)3.63 (2.00)1.600.014.03 (2.02)2.91 (2.02)12.22***0.08
Cigarettes Cause Fatal Lung Disease
Healthy/Diseased LungsD4.71 (1.98)3.71 (2.01)59.77***0.304.50 (1.96)3.78 (1.96)5.46*0.04
 Toe TagS4.38 (2.17)3.63 (1.99)43.02**0.244.49 (2.01)3.16 (2.01)16.56***0.11
 Lungs Full of CigarettesM4.05 (2.09)3.63 (1.99)10.37**0.074.37 (1.99)2.91 (1.99)22.09***0.14
 Doctor with X-RayE3.75 (2.01)3.71 (2.01)0.210.004.12 (1.99)3.15 (1.99)10.16**0.07
Cigarettes Cause Cancer
 Deathly Ill WomanS5.06 (2.02)3.83 (2.14)66.01***0.324.92 (1.93)3.63 (1.93)16.45***0.11
Cancerous Lesion on LipD4.75 (1.94)3.66 (1.96)60.55***0.304.52 (1.95)3.73 (1.95)7.63**0.05
 Red Cigarette BurningA4.00 (2.05)3.66 (1.96)9.39**0.064.19 (2.00)3.29 (2.00)8.56**0.06
 White Cigarette BurningA3.93 (2.15)3.83 (2.14)0.590.004.37 (2.05)3.06 (2.05)14.07***0.09
Cigarettes Cause Stroke and Heart Disease
Oxygen Mask on Man's Face S,E4.44 (2.09)3.64 (1.95)28.17***0.174.49 (1.94)3.40 (1.97)12.77**0.08
 Hand with Oxygen MaskE4.01 (2.07)3.64 (2.06)7.08**0.054.30 (1.97)3.05 (2.00)14.82***0.10
 Man in Pain-Hand on ChestS3.94 (1.97)3.64 (1.95)7.12**0.054.20 (1.94)3.21 (1.87)11.44***0.08
 Red Lightening with HeartA3.72 (2.13)3.64 (2.06)0.040.004.19 (2.03)2.85 (1.96)15.52***0.10
Smoking During Pregnancy Can Harm Your Baby
Baby in IncubatorC,A,S,E4.32 (2.26)3.81 (2.16)14.17***0.094.47 (2.10)3.50 (2.24)8.39**0.06
 Pacifier in AshtrayM4.19 (2.20)4.01 (2.16)0.400.004.65 (1.99)3.17 (2.17)18.10***0.12
Smoking Can Kill You
Man with Chest StaplesS,D4.41 (1.99)3.72 (2.10)26.41***0.164.61 (2.04)3.16 (1.97)18.52***0.12
 Red Coffin with BodyA4.07 (2.27)3.72 (2.10)5.25*0.044.47 (2.11)2.92 (1.97)20.73***0.13
 Man in CasketS3.95 (2.19)3.61 (2.03)6.62*0.054.30 (2.09)3.08 (1.98)14.68***0.10
 Cigarettes=RIPA3.57 (2.07)3.61 (2.03)0.730.004.05 (2.04)2.93 (1.92)11.71***0.08
Tobacco Smoke Causes Fatal Lung Disease in Non-smokers
 GraveyardM4.32 (2.17)3.82 (2.18)13.63***0.094.78 (1.96)2.91 (2.02)32.43***0.19
 Man Smoke at WomanU4.26 (2.18)3.82 (2.18)11.16***0.074.69 (1.99)2.93 (2.06)27.89***0.17
Woman CryingS4.11 (2.09)3.82 (2.18)5.03*0.034.66 (1.94)2.82 (1.98)31.19***0.18
 Woman Smoke at ManU3.96 (2.10)3.85 (2.04)0.410.004.60 (1.88)2.92 (1.93)33.67***0.20
 Man Hands Up And SmokeU3.94 (2.20)3.85 (2.04)0.220.004.62 (1.94)2.76 (1.86)39.55***0.22
Quitting Now Greatly Reduces Serious Risk to Your Health
 Cigarettes in Toilet BowlM2.56 (1.76)2.71 (1.76)2.750.023.06 (1.80)2.00 (1.53)13.58***0.09
Man in ‘I Quit’ T-ShirtM2.17 (1.50)2.56 (1.74)15.19***0.102.51 (1.70)2.15 (1.48)2.040.01
 Woman Blowing BubbleM1.97 (1.34)2.56 (1.74)25.07***0.152.36 (1.56)2.12 (1.51)1.150.01
  • Fear-related reactions scores ranged from 1 (not at all) to 7 (extremely). Image themes: A, art-graphics; C, child/baby; D, diseased body part; E, medical equipment; M, metaphor; S, suffering or dead person; U, unpleasant smoking experience. ηp2=proportion of variance explained. The labels selected by the Food and Drug Administration in June 2011 appear in bold.

  • *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.