Table 2

Selected air quality measures by nicotine level in indoor venues, August–October 2012, Toronto Waterpipe Study

MeasurementsLow air-nicotine venues (<1 µg/m3) (n=5)High air-nicotine venues (≥1 µg/m3) (n=7)
Mean (SD)MedianMinimum–maximumMean (SD)MedianMinimum–maximum
PM2.5 (µg/m3)†223.4 (422.1)553–49821975.2 (2335.7)*1189.04.0–17221
Ambient CO (ppm)†4.1 (5.3)2.20.0–24.421.2 (23.2)17.00–120
Active waterpipes (no.)†4.0 (2.9)3.00–914.2 (5.1)**14.04–27
Nicotine (µg/m3)‡0.70 (0.25)0.820.20–0.895.05 (1.91)*5.671.60–7.91
Breath CO (ppm) upon exiting venue‡3.42 (1.30)4.01.5–5.022.2 (23.9)*8.54.5–70.0
  • *p≤0.05.

  • **p<0.01.

  • ***p<0.0001.

  • †Mixed-model analysis (crude analysis) used to test difference of real-time measures of PM2.5 and ambient CO between low and high air-nicotine venues; PM2.5 and ambient CO values were log-transformed.

  • ‡t Test used to test difference in air nicotine and breath CO between low and high air-nicotine venues.

  • CO, carbon monoxide.