Table 4

Percentage of smokers’ cigarette packs showing evidence of possible tax avoidance or evasion in Malaysia and Thailand

Wave 1 (January–March 2005)Wave 2 (August 2006–June 2007)Wave 3 (January–August 2008)Wave 1 (January–March 2005)Wave 2 (August 2006–June 2007)Wave 3 (January–August 2008)Wave 4 (April–November 2009)
Source of informationPackSelf-reportPackSelf-reportPackSelf-reportPackSelf-reportPackSelf-reportPackSelf-reportPackSelf-report
Health warnings
 Non-standard warning labels3.*
 No warning labels3.83.18.4*7.12.3*
 Refused/don't knowNANA7.82.90.4***
Tax stamps
 No tax stamps or security ink9.29.213.7*10.039.7**14.3*
 Refused/don't knowNANA10.***NANA0.00.7NANANANA
  • n Represents the total number of valid responses per item (ie, the denominator). *, ** and ***: significant difference at 5%, 1% and 0.1% with previous time period. These should be interpreted with great caution as the number of comparisons is absurdly high.

  • NA, not applicable.