Table 2

Graphic warning labels included in questionnaire versions A and B and their understandability ratings

Questionnaire version AQuestionnaire version B
Warning categoryLabelUnderstandability,
mean (SD)
mean (SD)
Cigarettes are AddictiveHole in Throat3.58 (0.72)Red Puppet3.41 (0.78)
Cigarette Injection3.32 (0.88)Woman in Rain3.15 (0.94)
Tobacco Smoke Can Harm Your ChildrenSmoke Approaching Baby3.77 (0.56)Smoke at Toddler3.74 (0.50)
Smoke at Baby3.80 (0.49)Girl Crying3.59 (0.69)
Girl with Oxygen Mask3.59 (0.68)Child Lettering3.66 (0.50)
Cigarettes Cause Fatal Lung DiseaseToe Tag3.74 (0.56)Healthy/Diseased Lungs3.68 (0.57)
Lungs Full of Cigarettes3.60 (0.70)Doctor with X-Ray3.60 (0.64)
Cigarettes Cause CancerDeathly Ill Woman3.82 (0.45)Red Cigarette Burning3.67 (0.55)
White Cigarette Burning3.70 (0.59)Cancerous Lesion on Lip3.73 (0.59)
Cigarettes Cause Strokes And Heart DiseaseHand With Oxygen Mask3.52 (0.68)Man Pain-Hand on Chest3.68 (0.55)
Red Lightning with Heart3.41 (0.78)Oxygen Mask Man's Face3.73 (0.52)
Smoking During Pregnancy Can Harm Your BabyPacifier and Ashtray3.74 (0.54)Baby in Incubator3.72 (0.52)
Smoking Can Kill YouMan with Chest Staples3.68 (0.62)Man in Casket3.74 (0.53)
Red Coffin with Body in Black3.71 (0.66)Cigarettes=RIP3.66 (0.59)
Tobacco Smoke Causes Fatal Lung Disease in Non-smokersWoman Crying3.36 (0.80)Woman Smoke at Man3.55 (0.69)
Graveyard3.58 (0.68)Man Hands Up and Smoke3.53 (0.71)
Man Smoke at Woman3.65 (0.67)
Quitting Smoking Now Greatly Reduces Serious Risk To Your HealthCigarettes in Toilet Bowl3.24 (0.90)Woman Blowing Bubble2.82 (0.98)
Man in ‘I Quit’ T-Shirt3.43 (0.73)
  • Warning categories are those defined by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Label names are those used by Nonnemaker et al.34 Understandability scores range from 1 (not at all) to 4 (a great deal). The labels selected by the FDA in June 2011 appear in bold.