Table 4

Associations between appeal, health warning effectiveness, perceived harm and enjoyment/concern variables measured at baseline, and quit attempts measured at 1-month follow-up among baseline cigarette smokers

Initial models
(N=2726 to 3116)
Multivariable model
OR (95% CI)OR (95% CI)
Appeal variables
 Dislikes pack0.89 (0.66 to 1.20)
 Lower pack appeal1.04 (0.83 to 1.30)
 Lower quality1.22 (0.96 to 1.56)
 Lower satisfaction1.12 (0.87 to 1.45)
 Lower value for money1.03 (0.83 to 1.29)
 Believes brands do not differ in prestige0.79* (0.64 to 0.98)0.88 (0.70 to 1.10)
Health warning effectiveness variables
 Notices GHW first when looking at pack1.05 (0.83 to 1.33)
Does not believe dangers of smoking are exaggerated0.98 (0.78 to 1.23)
 Attributes much more motivation to quit to GHWs2.31*** (1.73 to 3.09)2.15*** (1.59 to 2.91)
 Concealed pack in past month1.20 (0.94 to 1.52)
 Requested different GHW in past month2.04*** (1.43 to 2.89)1.88*** (1.30 to 2.71)
Perceived harm variables
 Believes brands do not differ in harmfulness0.78* (0.62 to 0.99)0.86 (0.68 to 1.09)
Balance between enjoyment and concern
 More enjoyment1.00
 Balance0.98 (0.72 to 1.34)
 More concern1.40 (0.99 to 1.99)
  • Bolded results are statistically significant at p<0.05. The weighted N per initial model varies due to missing data on the outcome variable and predictor variables. The weighted N for the multivariable model includes only those cases with valid data on the outcome variable and all of the predictor variables included in the model. All models adjust for recency of the last quit attempt made at baseline and for: date of the follow-up survey; number of days between baseline and follow-up survey; cumulative Target Audience Rating Points (antismoking television advertising) in the 3 months prior to the follow-up survey; change in cigarette costliness (based on month of the follow-up survey); sex; age; education; socioeconomic status and Heaviness of Smoking Index (measured at baseline). –Predictor variable not included in multivariable model due to non-significant (at p<0.05) association with outcome variable in initial model.

  • ***p≤0.001, **p<0.01, *p<0.05.

  • GHW, graphic health warning.