Table 3

The association between tax structure (categorical variables) and price variability, 17 ITC countries

Price variability(75–25%)/50%(90–10%)/50%(95–5%)/50%(99–1%)/50%
Specific uniformOmitted
Specific tiered0.192***0.598**1.027***1.374***
Ad valorem uniform0.0270.0080.2800.358
Ad valorem tiered0.653***0.669***1.494***1.446***
Mixed uniform0.089***0.447**0.361*0.601**
Mixed tiered0.387*0.3810.8503.426***
  • *p≤0.1,**p≤0.05, ***p≤0.01. Marginal effects or coefficients are reported. SEs clustered at the country level are reported in parentheses and corresponding elasticity estimates are reported in square brackets. Stata module ‘margins, eydx’ was used to obtain elasticity estimates. Price variability is measured using differences between upper and lower 25, 10, 5 and 1 centiles divided by the median price. All regressions are estimated using GEE. Controls include year fixed effects, a dummy for EU countries that are subject to EU tax floor and burden, and a dummy for India, Canada, the US where states or provinces have jurisdiction on cigarette excise taxes and cigarettes can be sold without excise taxes in First Nations/Indian reservations.

  • EU, European Union; GEE, Generalised Estimating Equation; ITC, International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation.