Table 4

Marginal own-price effects: full sample and by subgroup

Tier 1Tier 2Tier 3Tier 4
Full Sample−1.445***−3.268***−4.484***−2.665***
(0.023)(0.029)(0.017)(0.030)
[−10.33][−11.39][−10.04][−21.08]
Subgroup analysis
Low-income smokers−1.308***−3.203***−5.648***−3.733***
(Income <¥3000)(0.023)(0.041)(0.021)(0.041)
[−13.52][−13.90][−11.11][−22.68]
High-income smokers−1.141***−1.862***−1.601***−0.753***
(Income ≥¥3000)(0.020)(0.014)(0.016)(0.015)
[−5.37][−4.87][−4.66][−12.12]
Z-score of between-group difference5.4830.95153.2968.26
p>|z|<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001
Less educated smokers−1.374***−3.994***−7.171***−4.872***
(Less than high school)(0.034)(0.067)(0.032)(0.065)
[−15.62][−17.08][−14.27][−27.73]
More educated smokers−1.353***−2.713***−2.967***−1.520***
(At least some high school)(0.029)(0.027)(0.024)(0.027)
[−7.17][−8.05][−7.53][−19.01]
Z-score of between-group difference0.47017.73105.147.62
p>|z|0.64<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001
• Note: Each row of coefficients comes from a separate regression. Average marginal own-price effects and SEs are reported as percentage points. Bootstrapped SEs derived from 1000 repetitions are in parentheses. The percentage change in the share of smokers choosing Tier k is in square brackets; this is derived from the own-price effect and the percentage of observations in Tier k at baseline.

• Significance: *p<0.10, **p<0.05, ***p<0.01.