Table 1

Coding framework for classifying evidence

Evidential criteriaBasis in existing literatureData coding frameworkCoding categories
QualityIndependenceWho funded the evidence? Are authors affiliated to the tobacco industry?27 47 49 51Who funded the research?
Has the author of the research any connection with the tobacco industry?
▸ Tobacco industry-connected (author TTC employed, TTC created, TTC commissioned, TTC part-funded, part of TTC supply chain, received TTC hospitality)
▸ Independent of the tobacco industry
▸ Unknown (could not be determined either way)
Nature of the evidenceIs the evidence a research study or is it something else?What was the evidence composed of? Was it a piece of research? If not what was it?▸ Research (primary research carried out by the author, or secondary research evaluating/summarising two or more primary research studies)
▸ Publication of facts and/or figures only (no opinion expressed)
▸ Strategy document (outlines a strategy or plan of action, eg, organisation annual report including evaluation of previous year and plans for the future)
▸ Opinion with or without supporting evidence (referenced evidence, data, figures, casual references to the evidence with no formal citation and opinion with no supporting evidence at all)
Publication RouteHas the evidence been peer-reviewed or published via traditional academic routes?27 47 49 50Was the research published in a peer-reviewed journal or another legitimate research avenue?
If not, where was the research published?
▸ Academic (peer-reviewed journal articles, other academic including conference papers, research reports, evaluation reports)
▸ Official government (eg, government report, policy document, commissioned review, speech, statement, website, opinion, briefing, newsletter, summary, press release)
▸ Official parliamentary Publication (eg, House of Commons questions in Hansard)
▸ Private publication by company/organisation (can include report, consultation response, briefing, summary, newsletter, factsheet, webpage content, press release, private letters, blog)
▸ Press article or media coverage (newspaper, trade magazine, published letters, tv programme)
RelevanceSubject matterWhat is the topic, argument, position or conclusion of the evidence?27 49 50What issue does the research address?Either illicit trade and/or economic issues, and:
▸ SP/tobacco packaging (‘Highly relevant’)
▸ Tobacco not packaging or unrelated to either packaging or tobacco (‘Less relevant’)
  • Table amended from Hatchard et al.8

  • SP, standardised packaging; TTC, transnational tobacco company.