Table 4

Feeling discouraged from wanting to smoke in response to graphic versus text warning labels for non-smokers (n=195) and smokers (n=113)

Graphic labelText labelLabel effectNon-smokersSmokersSmoker status effect
LabelImage themesM (SD)M (SD)Fηp2M (SD)M (SD)Fηp2
Cigarettes are Addictive
 Hole in ThroatD3.97 (1.26)2.74 (1.36)128.61***0.483.84 (1.04)2.52 (1.30)61.01***0.30
Cigarette InjectionM, A3.22 (1.46)2.74 (1.36)21.91***0.143.50 (1.22)2.08 (1.26)56.20***0.28
 Red PuppetM, A2.72 (1.38)2.45 (1.30)7.03**0.053.06 (1.32)1.86 (1.01)46.39***0.25
 Woman in RainU2.54 (1.34)2.45 (1.30)0.660.002.96 (1.31)1.80 (0.98)42.21***0.23
Tobacco Smoke Can Harm Your Children
Smoke Approaching BabyC3.86 (1.36)3.31 (1.36)23.58***0.154.05 (1.04)2.78 (1.47)45.00***0.25
 Smoke at BabyC, A, U3.84 (1.32)3.31 (1.36)24.61***0.154.02 (1.07)2.81 (1.41)42.20***0.23
 Girl with Oxygen MaskC, S, E3.64 (1.34)3.31 (1.36)10.36**0.073.94 (1.07)2.69 (1.41)49.84***0.26
 Smoke at ToddlerC3.64 (1.46)3.13 (1.38)34.23***0.203.80 (1.26)2.72 (1.40)28.91***0.17
 Girl CryingC, S3.30 (1.48)3.13 (1.38)2.760.023.66 (1.30)2.53 (1.34)34.52***0.20
 Child LetteringA3.09 (1.52)3.13 (1.38)0.110.003.57 (1.34)2.43 (1.35)28.60***0.17
Cigarettes Cause Fatal Lung Disease
Healthy/Diseased LungsD3.92 (1.20)2.99 (1.27)85.97***0.393.81 (1.12)2.88 (1.20)28.58***0.17
 Toe TagS3.70 (1.33)3.23 (1.35)27.68***0.173.90 (1.11)2.71 (1.37)40.46***0.23
 Lungs Full of CigarettesM3.45 (1.34)3.23 (1.35)5.13*0.043.81 (1.14)2.55 (1.29)44.33***0.24
 Doctor with X-RayE3.07 (1.31)2.99 (1.27)1.130.013.46 (1.23)2.38 (1.11)35.84***0.21
Cigarettes Cause Cancer
 Deathly Ill WomanS4.29 (1.06)3.30 (1.41)97.21***0.414.16 (0.97)3.16 (1.38)35.34***0.20
Cancerous Lesion on LipD4.11 (1.13)3.04 (1.39)89.46***0.394.00 (1.13)2.93 (1.17)45.45***0.25
 White Cigarette BurningA3.48 (1.44)3.30 (1.41)3.170.023.85 (1.18)2.59 (1.46)37.26***0.22
 Red Cigarette BurningA3.33 (1.33)3.04 (1.39)9.99**0.073.62 (1.31)2.53 (1.16)34.38***0.20
Cigarettes Cause Strokes and Heart Disease
Oxygen Mask on Man's FaceS,E3.63 (1.34)3.03 (1.32)35.04***0.203.80 (1.17)2.64 (1.24)42.05***0.23
 Hand with Oxygen MaskE3.35 (1.38)3.22 (1.37)2.490.023.75 (1.15)2.49 (1.35)41.35***0.23
 Man in Pain-Hand on ChestS3.25 (1.34)3.03 (1.32)8.26**0.063.60 (1.24)2.48 (1.15)38.10***0.22
 Red Lightening with HeartA3.15 (1.38)3.22 (1.37)0.610.003.67 (1.16)2.39 (1.32)38.69***0.22
Smoking During Pregnancy Can Harm Your Baby
Baby in IncubatorC,A,S,E3.54 (1.51)3.21 (1.48)12.20***0.083.74 (1.36)2.79 (1.52)17.69***0.11
 Pacifier in AshtrayM3.68 (1.42)3.46 (1.36)3.520.024.09 (1.04)2.67 (1.46)51.78***0.27
Smoking Can Kill You
Man with Chest StaplesS,D3.81 (1.36)3.32 (1.43)27.40***0.174.07 (1.14)2.69 (1.39)52.67***0.28
 Red Coffin with BodyA3.47 (1.43)3.32 (1.43)2.380.023.94 (1.16)2.45 (1.36)55.26***0.29
 Man in CasketS3.33 (1.46)2.98 (1.41)16.08***0.113.68 (1.35)2.45 (1.24)36.42***0.21
 Cigarettes=RIPA3.05 (1.42)2.98 (1.41)0.140.003.61 (1.33)2.17 (1.10)53.03***0.28
Tobacco Smoke Causes Fatal Lung Disease in Non-smokers
 GraveyardM3.55 (1.41)3.15 (1.50)12.53***0.083.89 (1.20)2.46 (1.42)51.74***0.27
 Man Smoke at WomanU3.52 (1.38)3.15 (1.50)16.24***0.103.87 (1.16)2.43 (1.44)47.99***0.26
Woman CryingS3.44 (1.39)3.15 (1.50)8.63**0.063.85 (1.17)2.36 (1.41)53.57***0.28
 Woman Smoke at ManU3.03 (1.43)2.95 (1.40)0.390.003.55 (1.36)2.20 (1.08)48.60***0.26
 Man Hands Up And SmokeU3.02 (1.47)2.95 (1.40)0.060.003.57 (1.32)2.14 (1.12)58.47***0.30
Quitting Smoking Now Greatly Reduces Serious Risk to Health
 Cigarettes in Toilet BowlM2.69 (1.40)2.71 (1.39)0.210.003.13 (1.36)2.03 (1.20)25.72***0.16
Man in ‘I Quit’ T-ShirtM2.47 (1.30)2.51 (1.26)0.310.002.83 (1.32)1.98 (1.01)21.26***0.13
 Woman Blowing BubbleM2.13 (1.24)2.51 (1.26)15.03***0.102.63 (1.34)1.84 (0.92)20.59***0.13
  • Response scale ranged from 1 (not at all) to 5 (very much). Image themes: A, art-graphics; C, child/baby; D, diseased body part; E, medical equipment; M, metaphor; S, suffering or dead person; U, unpleasant smoking experience. ηp2=proportion of variance explained. The labels selected by the Food and Drug Administration in June 2011 appear in bold.

  • *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.