Table 3

Association between number of cessation attempts or nicotine dependence and happiness among current smokers assessed by ordered probit regression analysis†

Number of cessation attemptsNicotine dependence‡
  • Data are presented as coefficients with SEs.

  • *p<0.05, **p<0.01.

  • †Happiness was assessed by the question “Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days—would you say you are?” with answers provided on a 10-point scale that ranged from ‘very unhappy’ (scored 1) to very happy (scored 10). Models are adjusted for age, sex, marital status, education, wealth, self-rated health, location, heavy episodic drinking and country.

  • ‡Nicotine dependence was assessed with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence with the following categories: 0–2 (very low), 3–4 (low), 5 (medium), 6–7 (high) and 8–10 (very high).