Table 2

Mainstream smoke analysis

Tobacco*Product A (Zero-zero)*Product B (Soex)*Product C (Hydro)*
Repeated runs (N)5655
Toxicant emissions (per waterpipe)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)p Value†Mean (SD)p Value†Mean (SD)p Value†
Carbon monoxide, (mg)197 (13.1)286 (42)0.001237 (42)0.08269 (17)<0.001
Nitric oxide, (mg)0.28 (0.04)0.35 (0.03)0.0060.32 (0.02)0.0020.35 (0.06)0.03
Tar, (mg)909 (195)1080 (238)0.21260 (233)0.032350 (324)<0.001
Volatile Aldehydes, (μg)
 Formaldehyde36.0 (6.25)41 (14)0.566.0 (9.68)0.0004111 (29)<0.001
 Acetaldehyde492 (88)604 (159)0.2348 (70)0.02933 (239)0.04
 AcroleinNDND26.7 (27)0.06203 (182)0.04
 Propionaldehyde92.9 (16.7)105 (35)0.559 (11.7)0.006181 (65)0.02
 Methacrolein19.9 (2.63)20 (6)122.92 (4.6)0.425 (6)0.1
Polyaromatic hydrocarbons, (ng)
 Naphtalene230 (64)266 (101)0.5176 (15)0.1269 (60)0.3
 Acenaphtylene74 (13)66 (14)0.844 (8)0.00262 (15)0.2
 AcenaphteneNDNDNDND
 Phenanthrene1185 (246)1445 (364)0.2660 (148)0.0041275 (266)0.6
 Anthracene234 (44)243 (59)0.8144 (30)0.005253 (56)0.6
 Fluoranthene639 (118)796 (202)0.2496 (110)0.08891 (248)0.07
 Pyrene564 (103)719 (193)0.1471 (118)0.2854 (211)0.02
 Benzo[a]anthracene130 (27)183 (56)0.09144 (27)0.4293 (84)0.003
 Chrysene135 (24)210 (57)0.02161 (28)0.1279 (59)0.001
 Benzo[k+b]fluoranthene72 (10)92 (23)0.171 (15)0.9145 (25)<0.001
 Benzo[a]pyrene96 (21)95 (20)0.986 (18)0.4140 (30)0.03
 Benzo[g,h,i]perylene57 (10)64 (15)0.450 (12)0.388 (12)0.002
 Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene69 (9)84 (20)0.266 (15)0.7107 (11)<0.001
  • *10 g of the product.

  • †p Value; for ‘herbal’ products compared with tobacco.

  • ND, not detectable.