Table 1

Series unit-root tests

Levels with constant and trendTest statistics
Quantity of manufactured cigarettes (MC)−7.94***−7.95***0.09
Quantity of RYO loose tobacco−8.32***−8.44***0.13*
Real price index for MC−3.51**−3.24*0.11
Real price index for RYO loose tobacco−2.17−4.24**0.19**
Average weekly income−2.45−7.02***0.18**
  • Notes: KPSS H0: no unit root; ADF and PP H0: unit root.

  • *, ** and *** indicate significance at 10%, 5% and 1%, respectively.

  • ADF, Augmented Dickey–Fuller; KPSS, Kwiatkowski, Phillips, Schmidt and Shin; PP, Phillips–Perron; RYO, Roll-Your-Own.