Table 3

Association between smoking-related thoughts/microbehaviours and subsequent quit attempts—generalised estimating equations (GEE) modelling results

 % Making quit attemptsIndividual predictor analysis† (7430 observations from 4532 individuals‡)Intermediate step (7416 observations from 4524 individuals‡)Fully adjusted analysis† (6861 observations from 4315 individuals‡)
Adjusted OR95% CIAdjusted OR95% CIAdjusted OR95% CI
Thinking about harm to you
 Never/don't know13.5RefRefRef
 Occasionally24.81.211.05 to 1.39*0.920.78 to 1.090.880.73 to 1.06
 Often37.61.771.53 to 2.06***1.140.95 to 1.371.020.84 to 1.24
Harm to others
 Never/don't know16.4RefRefRef
 Occasionally24.81.191.03 to 1.37*1.020.87 to to 1.22
 Often35.71.501.31 to 1.72***0.990.83 to 1.180.970.80 to 1.16
Cost of smoking
 Never/don't know20.2RefRefRef
 Occasionally37.21.291.13 to 1.48***1.050.91 to 1.210.990.85 to 1.15
 Often59.11.681.42 to 1.97***1.120.94 to 1.341.160.95 to 1.40
Seriously consider quitting
 Never/don't know8.1RefRefRef
 Occasionally33.42.031.79 to 2.29***1.831.60 to 2.09***1.391.19 to 1.62***
 Often49.13.362.92 to 2.89***2.672.27 to 3.14***1.731.43 to 2.09***
Butting out
 Yes38.71.851.65 to 2.07***1.431.27 to 1.62***1.221.07 to 1.39**
 At least once42.91.671.47 to 1.91***1.251.08 to 1.44**1.110.95 to 1.29
  • *Significant at p<0.05;**p<0.01;***p<0.001.

  • †In ‘individual indicator analysis’ only one smoking-related thought/microbehaviour variable (predictor variable) was included (controlled for city of residence, age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, highest level of education attained, annual household income, cohort and wave); in ‘intermediate step’, all predictor variable listed in the table were included (and controlled for all the covariates as in ‘individual predictor analysis’); whereas in ‘fully adjusted analysis’ we further added the following smoking-related variables: Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI), self-efficacy of quitting, length of last serious quit attempt and intention to quit.

  • ‡The number in some analyses was slightly less due to missing cases.

  • Ref, reference value.