Table 2

Hookah bar air pollution concentrations

Hookah bar IDReal-time PM2.5 (µg/m3)Gravimetric PM (µg/m3)BC (µg/m3)EC (µg/m3)OC (µg/m3)CO ppmNicotine (µg/m3)
11279.4833.03.5BDL321.6284.9
2481.3321.36.6BDL59.3493.4
3694.3ND5.8NDND104.4
4ND109.41.4BDL189.0504.0
52986.41270.27.65.3225.2NDND
5a540.9141.2ND5.3291.5ND2.7
6ND1112.53.0BDL403.6342.7
7135.6ND1.2BDL175.3NDND
81607.11091.14.2NDND217.1
Regulatory standardNA35 µg/m3NA3.5 mg/m3NA35500 µg/m3
  • Hookah bars 5 and 5a are the same bar assessed on two nights.

  • The regulatory standard for PM and CO are Environmental Protection Agency's 24 and 1 h, respectively, National Ambient Air Quality Standards, whereas elemental carbon and nicotine are OSHA's 8 h permissible exposure limits.

  • BC, black carbon; BDL, below the detection limit; CO, carbon monoxide; EC, elemental carbon; NA, none available; ND, not determined; OC, organic carbon; PM, particulate matter.