Table 4

Generalised estimating equation results showing correlates of the perception that female smoking is acceptable

VariablesFemale smoking is acceptable (%)*Adjusted OR (95% CI)p Value
Total observations used in analysis (n)=14 540
Sociodemographic variables
 Male33.81.00 (reference)
 Female63.84.37 (3.03 to 6.31)†
Age (years) 0.040
 18–2432.00.97 (0.64 to 1.48)
 25–3936.81.28 (1.07 to 1.53)†
 40–5436.41.11 (0.97 to 1.28)
 55+32.41.00 (reference)
 Beijing39.31.09 (0.86 to 1.39)
 Shenyang41.01.10 (0.91 to 1.32)
 Shanghai36.30.91 (0.65 to 1.28)
 Changsha33.00.65 (0.50 to 0.85)†
 Guangzhou25.60.53 (0.37 to 0.76)†
 Kunming33.40.68 (0.52 to 0.89)†
 Yinchuan35.41.00 (reference)
 Low35.70.91 (0.73 to 1.12)
 Moderate35.00.91 (0.79 to 1.05)
 High34.51.00 (reference)
 Low37.41.00 (reference)
 Moderate34.20.95 (0.81 to 1.11)
 High33.20.90 (0.76 to 1.08)
 No information37.81.14 (0.90 to 1.45)
General perception variables
Overall opinion of smoking<0.001
 Good/very good46.61.28 (1.06 to 1.54)†
 Neither39.61.00 (reference)
 Bad/very bad30.10.68 (0.63 to 0.75)†
Smoking is a sign of sophistication<0.001
 Agree/strongly agree47.72.57 (2.13 to 3.11)†
 Neither27.71.00 (reference)
 Disagree/strongly disagree30.51.28 (1.08 to 1.52)†
Society's view of smoking<0.001
 Society supports smoking41.71.02 (0.84 to 1.23)
 Neither39.71.00 (reference)
 Society disapproves of smoking31.50.71 (0.65 to 0.78)†
Close others’ view of your smoking<0.001
 Disagree that others don't want me to smoke41.41.11 (0.89 to 1.37)
 Neither37.51.00 (reference)
 Agree that others don't want me to smoke33.80.86 (0.71 to 1.03)
  • All ORs are adjusted for all other covariates in the model.

  • *The percentages for the perception that female smoking is acceptable presented in this table are not adjusted for other predictors in the model. They represent the percentage of respondents within that category who agreed or strongly agreed that female smoking is acceptable.

  • †Denotes statistically significant OR (at the p=0.05 level) compared to the reference category. Wave was included in this analysis and was significant (p=0.032); results were presented in Table 3. Time in sample was also controlled for and was not significant (p=0.286).