Table 3

Sidestream smoke analysis

Tobacco*Product A
(Zero-zero)*
Product B
(Soex)*
Product C
(Hydro)*
Repeated runs (N)5655
Toxicant emissions(per waterpipe)Mean (SD)Mean (SD)p Value†Mean (SD)p Value†Mean (SD)p Value†
Carbon monoxide, (mg)1880 (151)2912 (256)<0.0012560 (280)0.0012825 (267)<0.001
Nitric oxide, (mg)4.5 (0.12)4.91 (0.48)0.85.75 (0.48)<0.0015.66 (0.46)<0.001
Nanoparticles, (1012)4.8 (0.43)5.18 (0.56)0.33.73 (0.59)0.0095.32 (0.62)0.2
Volatile aldehydes, (μg)
 Formaldehyde4285 (836)2220 (389)<0.0012270 (372)0.0012724 (286)0.004
 Acetaldehyde1690 (405)2427 (758)0.091200 (264)0.052963 (869)0.02
 Acrolein210 (64.9)257 (97)0.4245 (60)0.4838 (293)0.002
 Propionaldehyde142 (39)241 (80)0.03116 (41)0.3241 (110)0.09
 Methacrolein45 (12)50 (25)0.737.8 (6.44)0.360 (25)0.3
Polyaromatic hydrocarbons, (ng)
 Naphtalene87 (29)69 (29)0.382 (21)0.889 (14)0.9
 AcenaphtyleneNDNDNDND
 AcenaphteneNDNDNDND
 Phenanthrene60 (10)156 (94)0.0561 (18)0.9191 (67)0.003
 Anthracene27 (25)56 (15)0.0451 (9)0.0863 (13)0.02
 Fluoranthene66 (12)188 (144)0.0959 (23)0.6235 (96)0.005
 Pyrene77 (12)201 (138)0.0875 (25)0.9256 (107)0.006
 Benzo[a]anthracene30 (4)87 (39)0.0138 (20)0.4109 (45)0.005
 Chrysene52 (7)136 (58)0.0163 (23)0.3161 (56)0.003
 Benzo[k+b]fluoranthene70 (11)126 (32)0.005100 (26)0.05130 (32)0.004
 Benzo[a]pyrene66 (8)108 (23)0.00490 (16)0.02121 (27)0.002
 Benzo[g,h,i]perylene104 (17)116 (19)0.3125 (31)0.2122 (27)0.2
 Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene150 (18)174 (31)0.2164 (33)0.4185 (34)0.08
  • *10 g of the product.

  • †p Value; for ‘herbal’ products compared with tobacco.

  • ND, not detectable.