Table 2

Change from baseline in continuous outcomes

Intervention (n=17)Control (n=15)p Value
Change in number of usual CPD in the previous week
 6 weeks (median, IQR)−5.29 (−10.50 to −2.00)−0.55 (−1.71 to 1.11)0.002*
 12 weeks (median, IQR)−2.00 (−6.57 to −0.43)−0.64 (−3.68 to 0.43)0.066*
Change in salivary cotinine (ng/mL)†‡
 6 weeks (mean, SD)−9.5 (23.5)16.4 (32.4)0.022
 12 weeks (mean, SD)10.9 (23.0)17.1 (22.1)0.495
Change in mCEQ‡ (6 weeks)
 Satisfaction (median, IQR)−0.50 (−1.00 to 0.33)−0.33 (−0.67 to 0)0.922*
 Psychological reward (mean, SD)−0.41 (1.41)−0.69 (0.92)0.520
 Aversion (median, IQR)0.5 (0 to 1.5)0 (−0.5 to 0)0.022*
 Sensations (mean, SD)0 (−2 to 1)0 (0 to 1)0.346*
 Craving (median, IQR)0 (−1.5 to 0.5)0 (−2 to 1)0.857*
Change in mCEQ‡ (12 weeks)
 Satisfaction (median, IQR)−0.33 (−0.67 to 0.67)−0.50 (−1 to 0)0.230*
 Psychological reward (mean, SD)−0.80 (1.46)−0.63 (1.02)0.719
 Aversion (median, IQR)0 (−0.5 to 0)0 (−0.5 to 0)0.623*
 Sensations (mean, SD)−0.33 (2.61)0.50 (1.22)0.287
 Craving (median, IQR)0 (−1 to 0)−1 (−1 to 1)0.036*
Change in GN-SBQ‡
 6 weeks (mean, SD)−4 (−5 to 0)−3 (−5 to −1)0.366*
 12 weeks (mean, SD)−5.29 (4.89)−1.71 (3.52)0.036
Change in AUTOS‡ (6 weeks)
 Total score (mean, SD)−4.5 (−7.0 to −2.5)−3.0 (−6.0 to 0)0.259*
 Withdrawal symptoms (mean, SD)−2.0 (−3.0 to −0.5)−1.0 (−3.0 to 0)0.416*
 Psychological dependence (median, IQR)−1.5 (−3.5 to 0)−1.0 (−2.0 to 0)0.270*
 Cue-induced cravings (mean, SD)−2.0 (−2.5 to 0)−1.0 (−2.0 to 0)0.293*
Change in AUTOS‡ (12 weeks)
 Total score (mean, SD)−5.53 (5.55)−2.00 (4.51)0.072
 Withdrawal symptoms (mean, SD)−2.53 (2.56)−0.64 (1.65)0.027
 Psychological dependence (median, IQR)−2.00 (−3.00 to −1.00)−1.00 (−2.00 to 0)0.162*
 Cue-induced cravings (mean, SD)−0.93 (1.49)−0.50 (1.91)0.500
  • All tests of significance are between group comparisons and t tests (unless otherwise indicated).

  • *Mann-Whitney test.

  • †One baseline extreme outlier in the control group was excluded from analysis.

  • ‡People who quit have been excluded (three quitters at 12 weeks: two in the intervention group and one in the control group; and one quitter in the intervention group was excluded at 6 weeks).

  • AUTOS, Autonomy Over Tobacco Smoking Scale; CPD, cigarettes smoked per day; GN-SBQ, Glover Nilsson Smoking Behavioural Questionnaire; mCEQ, modified Cigarette Evaluation Questionnaire.