Table 3

Sample characteristics at the baseline survey and time in sample at both surveys by country (weighted data)

The Netherlands
 Female (%)45.349.942.345.7p<0.001
 Male (%)54.750.157.754.3
Age groupχ2=81.60
 18–24 years (%)17.713.213.711.5p<0.001
 25–39 years (%)34.734.331.029.3
 40–54 years (%)32.730.936.134.8
 55 years and older (%)14.821.719.124.5
Educational levelχ2=507.08
 Low (%)44.455.022.637.9p<0.001
 Moderate (%)36.928.636.942.7
 High (%)18.616.440.519.3
Smokes exclusively rolling tobaccoχ2=274.56
 Yes, exclusively rolling tobacco (%)13.126.412.732.4p<0.001
 No, manufactured cigarettes or both (%)86.973.687.367.6
Heaviness of smoking*χ2=230.75
Intention to quitχ2=29.08
 Within 6 months (%)29.927.025.521.8p<0.001
 Not within 6 months (%)
Number of waves participated (time in sample)F=861.43
 Mean (SD)2.4 (0.7)4.2 (2.2)2.0 (0.8)3.5 (1.2)p<0.001
  • *Heaviness of smoking Index (HSI) is used as a continuous variable in the GEE analyses; HSI values ranged from 0 to 6 with higher values indicating stronger nicotine dependence.