Table 1

Outcomes assessed in experimental pictorial warning studies

ConstructDefinitionExample itemExamples of authors’ terminology
Attention and recall
 Attention attractingThe extent to which the warning attracted or grabbed the participant's attentionThe pack grabbed my attention29Attract attention, salience
 Attention durationAmount of time participant spent viewing the warning labelNA (objective measure)Looking time
 Response timeThe amount of time it took participant to complete questions or click forward after viewing the warning labelNA (objective measure)Response latencies, response time
 Recall/recognition of warning textWhether participant could remember warning text following exposureTry to recall what the warning information on the package stated and type it in the box below28Recall, aided recall, correctly recalling warning statement
Warning reactions—cognitive, emotional and physiological
 Cognitive elaborationThe extent to which the participant thought about the warning's content (eg, the harms of smoking)To what extent, if at all, do those health warnings make you think about the health risks?35Think about health risks of smoking, think about harms
 Negative affective reactionsNegative emotional reactions to the warning, such as fear or disgustHow afraid, worried, uncomfortable or disgusted participants felt after having seen each warning36Negative affect, emotional reactions, evoked fear, fear intensity
 CredibilityPerceptions of believability or truthfulness of the warningThe pack is believable37Credibility, perceived credibility, believability
 Lower psychological reactanceLack of a negative reaction in response to a perceived threat to one's freedomHow irritated, angry, annoyed, and aggravated the warnings made the participant (reverse coded)38State reactance, emotional reactions
 Lower smoking cravingsThe extent to which one does not crave a cigaretteI want a cigarette right now (reverse coded)39Cravings to smoke, aversion to smoking
 AversivenessThe extent to which the warning was difficult to look atThe pack was difficult to look at29Pack difficult to look at
Attitudes and beliefs
 Negative pack/brand attitudesNegative evaluation of the cigarette pack or brandAttitudes toward the package of cigarettes: unfavourable/favourable, negative/positive, and bad/good (reverse coded)28Package attractiveness, package attitude, brand attitude
 Negative smoking attitudesNegative evaluation of smoking behaviourSmoking helps people relax, smoking helps to reduce stress, smoking helps to keep weight down (reverse coded)40Attitude toward cigarettes, smoking-related stereotypes
 Perceived likelihood of harmBeliefs that smoking cigarettes is likely to lead to health-related harmsPlease evaluate your future risk of developing each of the following diseases: lung cancer, etc41Risk of smoking-related diseases, smoking effects scale, perceived susceptibility, vulnerability
 Self-efficacy to quitConfidence in one’s ability to quit smokingI do not need help from anyone to quit smoking39Quit efficacy, self-efficacy
 Lower willingness to payPrices assigned to cigarette packs with and without pictorial warningsNA (monetary amount)Perceived value for the pack
 Intention to not start smokingLikelihood of not starting smokingDo you think that you will smoke a cigarette at anytime during the next year?40Intent to smoke, intentions to start smoking
 Intention to quit smokingLikelihood of quitting smokingHow likely do you think it is that you will try to quit smoking within the next 30 days?39Intention to quit, quit intentions
Perceived effectiveness of warning labels to…
 Motivate me/others to not start smokingPerception of warning message's motivational value for participant/others not starting smokingHow effective label would be in convincing youth not to start smoking42Motivation to remain abstinent, effectiveness rating—convincing youth not to start
 Motivate me to cut down smokingPerception of warning message's motivational value for participant cutting down on smokingIndicate the chances that they would reduce the number of cigarettes smoked if the image they were viewing appeared on the cigarette or tobacco brand they normally purchased42Foregoing a cigarette, reduce consumption
 Motivate me to quit smokingPerception of warning message's motivational value for participant quitting smokingThe information presented on this package would help me quit smoking25Perceived intentions to quit, motivation to quit smoking, perceived impact on the decision to quit smoking
 Motivate others to quit smokingPerception of warning message's motivational value for others quitting smokingHow effective label would be in motivating smokers to quit42Motivate smokers to quit, encourage other smokers to quit
 Motivate me/others to not smoke (composite asked of smoker/non-smoker samples together)Perception of warning message's motivational value to not smokeDue to this warning, I would cut down/not start smoking. My smoking behaviour would be influenced by this warning43Encourage others to quit/discourage others from starting, effectiveness evaluation
 Be generally effective (typically single item)Perception of the general effectiveness of the warning message (no referent, such as participant or others, provided)Overall, on a scale of 1–10, how effective is this health warning?44Overall effectiveness, most effective
 Be effective for me/others (multiple-item scale)Perceptions about the effectiveness of the warning message for participant /othersMultiple item scales, such as: the pack makes me want to quit smoking. The pack will make people more concerned about the health risks of smoking. The pack will prevent young people from starting to smoke37Perceived effectiveness, perceived impact
 Deter giving cigarettes as giftPerceptions of the extent to which a warning label would deter a participant from wanting to give cigarettes as a giftIf you want to use cigarettes as a gift, do the following cigarette labels make you change your mind and not do so?45Perceived impact of giving cigarettes as a gift