Table 1

Phase 1 coding framework and illustrative quotes

ThemeDefinitionsIllustrative quotes
  • Long-term health consequences (eg, cancer, living a shorter life)

“I want to be healthy and live a long life” (male, 30–54, former smoker, parent).
“I don't want to have the doom and gloom of maybe dying of lung cancer one day” (female, 25–39, smoker, no children)
  • Short-term health consequences (eg, increased coughing, harder to recover from colds, lower immunity, shortness of breath, harder to breathe)

“My health…my lung capacity was pathetic…waking up, coughing and phlegm” (male, 30–54, former smoker, parent)
“When you can't go up that flight of stairs or run on the treadmill like you used to, it hits you” (male, 25–39, smoker, no children)
  • Shame (eg, smoking viewed negatively by others, smokers seen differently, changes in the way people see you, embarrassed smoking in front of others, feel the need to hide smoking from others, feel the need to remove oneself while smoking)

“Smoking used to be cool, but now it's become something to be ashamed of. I'm made to smoke in a little dark corner with a filthy can on the ground as an ashtray. Like a pariah” (female, 25–39, smoker, no children).
“Where you are allowed to smoke is having an effect…you're not becoming cool in the group, you are becoming an outsider to the group. It's not something I am proud of” (male, 25–39, smoker, no children).
“Smokers are made to feel like a second class citizen…it's humiliating” (male, 25–39, former smoker, no children)
“I feel ashamed if someone sees me [smoke]…so I don't smoke in public, around work, other people. I only smoke at home or all by myself” (female, 30–54, smoker, no children)
“I go hide in the shed” (male, 30–54, smoker, parent). “You feel like a leper, or like you have two heads” (female, 25–39, quitter, parent)
“I always want to go around the corner and hide to have a cigarette…so my kids don't see me” (female, 30–54, smoker, parent)
  • Guilt (eg, smoking is the wrong thing to do to yourself/harms self, harms others, passive smoking, poor role model for children, makes others worry)

“I feel guilty, cause I want a cigarette and I am not spending time with the kids” (female, 30–54, smoker, parent)
“They are so worried about mummy dying…they've cried sometimes. You feel bad” (female, 30–54, smoker parent)
“I'm concerned I am being a hypocrite and not setting a good example for my kids” (male, 30–54, smoker, parent)
  • Lower prevalence (eg, less smoking in the community and among friends/peers/colleagues/ partners)

“Less people smoke now” (male, 25–39, smoker, no children)
  • Increased legislation requiring smoke-free venues/workplaces

“It's quite inconvenient as you have to remove yourself from a social situation to go and smoke” (male, 25–39, smoker, no children)
  • Cost of cigarettes/affordability

“Every time the cost goes up it crosses your mind to stop…” (male, 30–54, smoker, parent)
  • Cost of deodorants/mouthwash/chewing gum/lollies to freshen breath or cover up smoking

“Spending a fortune, constantly gargling mouthwash and chewing gum” (female, 25–39, smoker, no children)
  • Smell of smoke /bad breath

  • Yellow fingers/teeth/staining

  • Wrinkles/ageing skin

“People say ‘Go away, you stink!’. My nephews and nieces don't want to kiss me” (female, 25–39, smoker, no children)
“It got to the stage I started to suck lollies all day” (female, 30–54 former smoker, parent)