Table 1

Baseline characteristics

VariablesIntervention group
N=17 (%)
Control group
N=16 (%)
Gender
 Female11 (65)7 (44)
Ethnicity
 Non-Māori15 (88)15 (94)
 Māori21
Age at baseline (years)
 Mean (SD)41.8 (16.8)37.8 (14.1)
Highest level of education
 <Year 127 (41)5 (31)
 ≥Year 1210 (59)11 (69)
Type of tobacco smoked
 Factory made only11 (65)7 (44)
 Factory as well as roll-your-own6 (35)9 (56)
Age started smoking (years)
 Mean (SD)14.1 (2.5)15.0 (2.6)
Number of usual CPD
 Mean (SD)16.3 (6.7)17.3 (6.5)
Salivary cotinine (ng/mL)
 Median (IQR)24 (17–46)36 (24–63)
Motivation to stop scale
 Median (IQR)3 (3–4)4 (2–4)
mCEQ (mean, SD)
 Satisfaction4.2 (1.4)4.4 (1.0)
 Psychological reward4.1 (1.7)4.5 (1.3)
 Aversion1.4 (0.6)1.5 (0.6)
 Sensations2.9 (2.1)3.3 (1.3)
 Craving5.5 (1.3)6.1 (1.0)
GN-SBQ (mean, SD)21.3 (6.4)25.5 (6.3)
AUTOS (mean, SD)
Total score24.1 (8.9)26.4 (5.9)
 Withdrawal symptoms7.3 (2.8)7.9 (2.3)
 Psychological dependence8.9 (3.0)9.7 (1.9)
 Cue-induced cravings7.9 (3.7)8.9 (2.7)
  • Motivation to stop was measured on a scale of 1–7, where 1=I don't want to stop smoking, 2=I think I should stop smoking but don't really want to, 3=I want to stop smoking but haven't thought about when, 4=I really want to stop smoking but I don't know when I will, 5=I want to stop smoking and hope to soon, 6=I really want to stop smoking and intend to in the next 3 months, and 7=I really want to stop smoking and intend to in the next month.

  • mCEQ=Modified Cigarette Evaluation Questionnaire. Each subscale was scored 1–7, where 1 is not at all, 2 is very little, 3 is a little, 4 is moderately, 5 is a lot, 6 is quite a lot and 7 is extremely.

  • GN-SBQ=Glover Nilsson Smoking Behavioural Questionnaire. Scored 0–4 for each question with 11 questions. Total score=44. Scores of <12=mild behavioural dependence, 12–22=moderate behavioural dependence, 23–33=strong behavioural dependence, >33=very strong behavioural dependence.

  • AUTOS=Autonomy Over Tobacco Scale. Each question is scored 0–3, where: 0=not at all, 1=a little, 2=pretty well and 3=very well. The total questionnaire has 12 questions, with a maximum score of 36. Each subscale has 4 questions, with a maximum score of 12.

  • CPD, cigarettes smoked per day.