Table 4

Association between smoking-related thoughts/microbehaviours and sustained abstinence among those who had made quit attempts—generalised estimating equations (GEE) modelling results 

 Per centage of achieving sustained abstinenceIndividual predictor analysis† (1843 observations from 1553 individuals‡)Intermediate step (1840 observations from 1548 individuals‡)Fully adjusted analysis† (1674 observations from 1415 individuals‡)
Adjusted odds ratio95% CIAdjusted odds ratio95% CIAdjusted odds ratio95% CI
Thinking about harm to you
 Never/don't know28.1RefRefRef
 Occasionally15.40.890.63 to 1.250.840.57 to 1.240.890.57 to 1.35
 Often21.10.780.56 to 1.080.830.55 to 1.230.840.54 to 1.29
Harm to others
 Never/don't know24.5RefRefRef
 Occasionally15.91.150.82to 1.571.200.84 to 1.721.130.76 to 1.69
 Often21.00.840.62 to 1.160.920.63 to 1.330.790.53 to 1.19
Cost of smoking
 Never/don't know13.9RefRefRef
 Occasionally18.81.250.94 to 1.671.340.99 to 1.801.391.01 to 1.93*
 Often38.40.980.69 to 1.391.010.90 to 1.471.200.79 to 1.82
Seriously consider quitting
 Never/don't know4.6RefRefRef
 Occasionally3.80.700.52 to 0.93*0.670.49 to 0.91*0.830.58 to 1.17
 Often4.60.840.63 to 1.140.870.62 to 1.220.810.53 to 1.22
Butting out
 Yes4.20.930.74 to 1.180.970.75 to 1.260.840.63 to1.12
 At least once3.51.050.80 to 1.371.140.86 to 1.541.230.89 to 1.72
  • *Significant at p<0.05;**p<0.01;***p<0.001.

  • †In ‘individual indicator analysis’ only one smoking-related thought/microbehaviour variable (predictor variable) was included (controlled for city of residence, age, sex, ethnicity, marital status, highest level of education attained, annual household income, cohort and wave); in ‘intermediate step’, all predictor variable listed in the table were included (and controlled for all the covariates as in ‘individual predictor analysis’); whereas in ‘fully adjusted analysis’ we further added the following smoking-related variables: Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI), self-efficacy of quitting, length of last serious quit attempt and intention to quit.

  • ‡The number in some analyses was slightly less due to missing cases.

  • Ref: reference value.