Table 1

Variables used as covariates and mediators in regression and structural modelling analyses

Variable (items)αSample item
Covariates
 Parental support (5)*0.94When I feel bad about something, my parent will listen
 Parental monitoring (5)*0.75My parent asks me what I do with my friends
Parent–adolescent conflict (3)*0.83I have a lot of arguments with my parent
 Academic competence (5)*0.79I like school because I do well in class
 Social competence (5)*0.81I find it easy to make friends with other teens
 Sensation seeking (5)*0.75I like to do things that are a little frightening
 Rebelliousness (4)*0.84I like to break the rules
Mediators
 Smoking expectancies (5)*0.94Smoking helps you feel more self-confident
 Prototypes of smokers (4)†0.80The type of person your age who smokes is popular
 Peer smoker affiliation (1)‡NADo any of your friends smoke cigarettes?
  • *Response=1–5 Likert scale (Not at all true–Very true).

  • †Response=1–5 adjective scale (Not at all–Very).

  • ‡Response=1–5 count scale (None of my friends–4 or more of my friends).

  • NA, not applicable.