Table 3

Regression results from mixed logit model

No interactionInteracted with Tier 1Interacted with Tier 2Interacted with Tier 3
Random coefficients
Cigarette tier price—mean−0.314***
(0.049)
Cigarette tier price—SD0.221***
(0.031)
Constant—mean4.565***5.101***2.558***
(1.006)(0.777)(0. 631)
Constant—SD1.119***1.159***1.524***
(0.256)(0.129)(0.105)
Fixed coefficients
Male0.9610.803**0.760***
(0.614)(0.340)(0.240)
Age−0.087***−0.075***−0.033***
(0.009)(0.008)(0.007)
Income: <¥1000−3.644***−2.692***−1.009***
(0.385)(0.308)(0.291)
Income: ¥1000–2999−2.509***−1.544***−0.512**
(0.310)(0.267)(0.262)
Income: ¥3000–4999−1.265***−0.648**−0.386
(0.324)(0.286)(0.281)
Income:¥5000 (omitted)
Education: Primary school and below (omitted)
Education: Middle school0.4960.499**0.678***
(0.340)(0.243)(0.212)
Education: High school1.337***1.204***0.899***
(0.330)(0.254)(0.225)
Education: Beyond high school2.505***2.039***1.277***
(0.380)(0.310)(0.260)
Cigarette consumption at Wave 1−0.011−0.016**−0.005
(0.009)(0.008)(0.007)
Wave fixed effectsYes
City fixed effectsYes
Number of persons3477
Number of person-years8552
Number of observations34 208
• Note: Robust SEs, in parentheses, are clustered at the person level and weighted for survey sampling. The omitted category for categorical variables is: income above ¥5000, primary education and below, Wave 1 and Beijing. The model includes tier-specific constants. ‘Interacted with Tier x’ means the coefficient is on the interaction term between the variable listed in the first column with Tier x (x=1, 2, 3, 4), as mixed logit model allows variables that vary over choice alternatives, which is similar to conditional logit.

• Significance: *p<0.10, **p<0.05, ***p<0.01.