Table 4

Association of HWL reactions with quit intentions showing main as well as interaction effects for the combined model and main effects for the stratified models by pre-policy and post-policy implementation

Independent variablesQuit intentions
Combined modelStratified model by survey year
β (SE)†
n=1499–1504‡
N=2159–2169
Pre (2011)
β (SE)†
n=1085–1090‡
Post (2013)
β (SE)†
n=1073–1079‡
Notice0.04 (0.02)0.03 (0.02)0.12 (0.02)***
Notice×wave0.08 (0.03)**
Read0.03 (0.02)0.02 (0.02)0.11 (0.02)***
Read×wave0.08 (0.03)*
Cognitive reactions0.20 (0.03)***0.19 (0.04)***0.33 (0.03)***
Cognitive reactions×wave0.10 (0.04)*
Forgo0.11 (0.04)*0.11 (0.04)**0.16 (0.05)***
Forgo×wave0.05 (0.06)
Avoid0.04 (0.07)0.06 (0.08)0.09 (0.06)
Avoid×wave0.04 (0.09)
Attentional orientation0.04 (0.06)0.05 (0.06)0.23 (0.06)***
Attentional orientation×wave0.17 (0.08)*
  • *p<.05; **p<.01; ***p<.001.

  • Regression coefficients based on separate models for each independent variable where estimates were adjusted for age, sex, education, income, cigarettes per day, past year quit attempts, survey mode (phone vs web), survey year and year of recruitment for the combined model and for the same covariates except survey year for the stratified models.

  • ‡Variation in n is due to missing data on one or more independent variables included in the models.

  • –, Not applicable; β, regression coefficients; HWL, health warning label; N, number of person-wave observations; n, number of unique individuals.