Table 3

Responsiveness of number of cigarettes smoked by income groups (the second stage estimation results)

1st2nd3rd4th
Age0.092*** (0.012)0.060*** (0.012)0.048*** (0.01)0.044*** (0.012)
Age squared−0.001*** (0.000)−0.001*** (0.000)−0.001*** (0.000)−0.001*** (0.000)
Female−1.617*** (0.394)−2.129*** (0.545)−0.701 (0.478)−0.331 (0.543)
Rural0.107** (0.043)0.131** (0.055)0.060** (0.029)0.041 (0.038)
Single0.235*** (0.083)0.015 (0.066)0.071 (0.055)0.047 (0.061)
Divorced0.5912*** (0.183)0.607*** (0.210)0.139 (0.176)0.241 (0.173)
Widowed0.521*** (0.119)0.731*** (0.196)0.424** (0.189)0.277 (0.238)
Elementary school−0.024 (0.050)0.007 (0.062)0.013 (0.042)0.041 (0.057)
Middle school−0.117* (0.065)−0.080 (0.058)−0.026 (0.055)0.055 (0.081)
College−0.172** (0.087)−0.237*** (0.082)−0.097*** (0.032)−0.123*** (0.039)
No jobs−0.060 (0.110)−0.230** (0.092)−0.087 (0.055)−0.095 (0.087)
White-collar−0.020 (0.175)0.028 (0.102)−0.073* (0.041)−0.020 (0.042)
Service and sales0.115 (0.123)0.212** (0.100)0.112* (0.064)0.052 (0.088)
Agriculture and fisheries−0.122 (0.121)−0.146 (0.109)0.112* (0.061)0.103 (0.069)
Construction0.066 (0.116)0.147 (0.092)0.100* (0.059)0.030 (0.058)
Duration of smoking0.012*** (0.002)0.018*** (0.002)0.022*** (0.002)0.022*** (0.003)
Log price−0.812*** (0.191)−0.572*** (0.141)−0.325** (0.132)−0.341** (0.169)
Constant6.014*** (1.086)4.825*** (0.824)3.852*** (0.598)4.311*** (0.831)
Inverse Mills ratio1.086*** (0.348)1.374*** (0.446)0.180 (0.362)−0.134 (0.425)
N11 38113 61914 83415 007
  • Robust SEs are presented in parenthesis, using the Huber/White/Sandwich estimator.

  • *<0.1, **<0.05, ***<0.001.