Table 5

Moderators of perceived motivation to avoid cigarette use

kd95% CIQb p Value
Study design
 Within subjects71.37**(0.78 to 1.97)
 Between subjects80.51**(0.36 to 0.66)0.006
Participant smoking status
 Smokers90.65**(0.31 to 0.99)
 Non-smokers and mixed samples61.39**(0.67 to 2.11)0.07
Country of sample
 USA41.09*(0.03 to 2.14)
 Other countries110.90**(0.47 to 1.34)0.10
Exposure medium
 Warning on a 2D pack101.02**(0.56 to 1.47)
 Warning on a 3D pack40.93(−0.30 to 2.16)0.90
Exposure channel
 Digital50.96*(0.14 to 1.78)
 Printed or paper50.95**(0.34 to 1.57)
 Cigarette pack40.93(−0.30 to 2.16)0.99
  • *p<0.05, **p<0.001.

  • 2D, 2-dimensional; 3D, 3-dimensional; k, number of studies; d, weighted mean effect size.