Table 2

Regression of craving to smoke on cigarette POS marketing (displays, advertisements and promotions) and other covariates (n=947)

Unadjusted Embedded Imagep ValueAdjusted* Embedded Imagep Value
POS
 Displays0.60<0.0010.33<0.001
POS
 Ads0.63<0.0010.220.002
POS
 Promotions0.49<0.0010.140.06
HSI0.38<0.0010.44<0.001
Sex<0.0010.011
 Male−0.50−0.47
 Female00
Age<0.001<0.001
 18–2400
 25–39−0.76−0.58
 40–54−1.18−0.68
 55+−2.48−1.36
Race/ethnicity<0.0010.219
 Non-Hispanic White00
 Non-Hispanic Black0.890.02
 Hispanic1.870.75
 Other0.920.59
Income ($1000)−0.03<0.001−0.010.005
Education<0.0010.003
 Less than high school00
 High school graduate−0.9−0.54
 Some college−1.54−0.98
 College graduate−2.7−1.28
Frequency of visits to store<0.001<0.001
 Sometimes00
 Frequently1.50.81
 Always1.910.91
Method of recruitment<0.001<0.001
 Random digit dialling−1.66−0.56
 Other00
Embedded Image0.22
  • *Adjusted for the effect of all covariates.

  • HSI, Heaviness of Smoking Index; POS, the point-of-sale.