Table 1

Sample characteristics for adults and youth in Navi Mumbai, India, and Dhaka, Bangladesh

 Adults (n=1071)Youth (n=1012)
India (n=502)Bangladesh (n=569)Test statistics* (p value)India (n=500)Bangladesh (n=512)Test statistics*
(p value)
Age (mean; SD)†36.0 (9.2)38.6 (12.5)t=3.8 (p<0.001)17.5 (0.7)17.1 (0.8)t=−7.4 (p<0.001)
Sex (%)
 Female49.845.9χ2=1.6 (p=0.22)50.049.6χ2=0.02 (p=0.90)
Smokeless tobacco use (%)
 Daily user93.694.4χ2=0.3 (p=0.61)29.014.5χ2=49.6 (p<0.001)
 Non-daily user6.45.65.811.8
 Non-user susceptible21.215.4
 Non-user non-susceptible44.058.4
Mixed use (%) (smoked and smokeless)16.924.8χ2=9.9 (p=0.002)18.421.6χ2=0.5 (p=0.50)
Quit intentions‡ (%)
 Plans to quit69.750.1χ2=42.5 (p<0.001)81.649.6χ2=35.3 (p<0.001)
 No plans to quit30.349.918.450.4
Income (%)
 Low38.572.8χ2=131.0 (p<0.001)
 Not stated16.26.2
Education (%)
 Low3.831.5χ2=247.2 (p<0.001)20.036.3χ2=277.5 (p<0.001)
  • Bolded items represent statistical significance, where the p value is <0.05.

  • *Test statistic denotes between-country differences (India vs Bangladesh), within adult or youth sample.

  • †Age range for Indian youth was 16–18 years; for Bangladeshi youth the age range was 16–18 years. For Indian adults the age range was 20–63 years; for Bangladeshi adults the age range was 19–80 years.

  • ‡Among smokeless tobacco users.