Table 2

Unadjusted prevalence rates (%) of selected nicotine-dependent characteristics in cigarette smokers, by gender and educational level, Brazil, 2008 and 2013

 Educational level
Total0–7 yearsEight or more years
Nicotine-dependent Characteristics20082013p Value*20082013p Value*20082013p Value*p Value for additive interaction†
Male
Prevalence of smokers22.818.7<0.0130.024.3<0.0116.614.90.03<0.01
Current smokers
 Quitting attempt in the past 12 months38.943.6<0.0139.243.40.0438.443.80.030.72
 Daily smokers87.985.90.0690.087.60.0884.584.10.820.37
Current daily smokers
 Recent daily smoker11.27.4<0.017.13.70.0118.111.6<0.010.20
 Years of daily smoking‡25.227.1<0.0128.532.2<0.0119.721.40.030.04
 Heavy smokers§20.220.10.9219.420.20.6521.820.00.420.35
 Passive smoking inside household§
 Among heavy smokers74.279.90.0575.777.90.5671.882.10.020.16
 Among light smokers65.257.7<0.00170.562.2<0.0155.652.60.380.20
Ever smokers
 Cessation rate¶50.053.00.0148.653.8<0.0152.252.00.910.02
Female
Prevalence of smokers13.810.8<0.0116.714.6<0.0111.48.4<0.010.38
Current smokers
 Quitting attempt in the past 12 months45.153.0<0.0147.756.3<0.0142.149.30.010.69
 Daily smokers87.988.30.7290.588.80.2384.987.80.120.10
Current daily smokers
 Recent daily smoker9.76.1<0.015.33.40.0915.19.1<0.010.04
 Years of daily smoking‡24.928.8<0.0128.232.4<0.0120.725.0<0.010.92
 Heavy smokers§17.217.40.9116.818.00.5617.816.80.660.48
 Passive smoking inside household§
 Among heavy smokers82.879.20.3779.380.80.7986.877.40.090.17
 Among light smokers69.362.4<0.0172.265.00.0165.559.70.050.74
Ever smokers
 Cessation rate¶53.756.20.0455.357.00.2951.555.30.040.41
  • *Corresponds to p value for χ2 test for differences in prevalence rates between 2008 and 2013.

  • †Generalised linear models (GLM) using the Poisson family and Gaussian link function were specified to understand whether absolute differences in prevalence rates between 2008 and 2013 were homogeneous by educational level.

  • ‡GLM using the Gaussian family were specified to understand whether absolute differences in means between 2008 and 2013 were homogeneous by educational level; p value for F test was used to assess unadjusted differences in means over time.

  • §Light smokers: Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) ≤3; heavy smokers: HSI ≥4.

  • ¶Cessation rate: past daily and occasional smokers divided by the number of ever smokers.