Table 2

Hookah bar air pollution concentrations

Bar 1Bar 2-Night 1Bar 2-Night 2Bar 2-Night 3Bar 3Bar 4
Workers studied112231
PM (μg/m3)
Gravimetric
912.5686.0246.8100.062.5175.0
BC (µg/m3)2.03.73.91.21.41.2
CO (ppm)10.522.513.99.799.511.4
Nicotine (µg/m3)10.54.34.90.20.61.9
Number of active smokers, mean (SD)10.0 (6.0)27.4 (2.0)31.5 (6.0)16.8 (5.7)15.2 (3.5)6.2 (2.4)
Total patrons, mean (SD)11.6 (5.0)35.6 (3.3)39.8 (3.5)22.5 (9.1)25.6 (3.6)7.7 (2.3)
Active water pipes4.4 (2.1)13.6 (1.7)13.3 (2.3)8.8 (2.2)6.4 (2.1)3.5 (0.8)
Open window or doorNoYesYesNoYesNo
  • BC, black carbon; CO, carbon monoxide; PM, particulate matter.