Table 2

Association between waterpipe tobacco smoking and human cancer

Waterpipe smokersNon-smokers
StudyCase (%)/control (%)Case (%)/control (%)OR, 95% CI
Lung cancer
 Gupta et al3112 (5)/31 (13)26 (11)/172 (71)2.56 (1.17 to 5.61)
 Koul et al32120 (22)/100 (18)57 (10)/277 (50)5.83 (3.95 to 8.61)
 Aoun et al3310 (6.5)/4 (2.5)40 (27)/96 (64)6.00 (1.78 to 20.26)
 Pooled analysis142 (15)/135 (14)123 (13)/545 (58)4.58 (2.61 to 8.03)
Oesophageal cancer
 Khan et al3466 (40)/15 (9)28 (17)/58 (34)9.11 (4.44 to 18.72)
 Malik et al35106 (32)/38 (12)29 (9)/157 (47)15.1 (8.78 to 25.98)
 Nasrollahzadeh et al3620 (2)/23 (3)280 (32)/548 (63)1.70 (0.92 to 3.15)
 Dar et al37420 (18)/699 (30)282 (12)/949 (40)2.02 (1.69 to 2.42)
 Shakeri et al3811 (3)/17 (4)119 (31)/243 (62)1.32 (0.6 to 2.91)
 Pooled analyses623 (15)/792 (19)738 (18)/1955 (48)3.63 (1.39 to 9.44)
Head and neck cancer
 Feng et al399 (1)/15 (2)441 (51)/404 (46)0.55 (0.24 to 1.27)
(Nasopharyngeal)
Khlifi et al4040 (8)/37 (7)129 (25)/314 (60)2.63 (1.61 to 4.30)
Bladder cancer
 Bedwani et al4112 (11)/ 24 (23)14 (13)/56 (53)2.00 (0.81 to 4.96)
Gastric cancer
 Shakeri et al4215 (2)/13 (1)294 (32)/600 (65)2.35 (1.11 to 5.01)
Prostate cancer
 Hosseini et al438 (3)/2 (1)129 (47)/135 (49)4.19 (0.87 to 20.08)
  • Significant results for pooled analyses are indicated in bold.